Mining and Fracking

By: Adam Saleem

Mining and its Types

There are two different types of mining. Surface and Sub-surface mining. Sub-surface is a lot more dangerous than surface, which is why today the majority of the world uses surface mining to get the majority of their resources.

Sub-Surface mining

Sub-surface mining is the act of going underground to get minerals and resources. People usual remove and deposit rocks in order to get resources from under the ground. In order to help the workers, shafts were built as support structures. However, sub-surface mining has its bad effects also. The probability of being killed is a lot higher, as explosions and cave-ins can occur frequently. The mining from underground also destroys lots of environments and harms animals and the ecosystem in the areas. Sub-surface mining also creates contaminated water and acids which can also harm the environment.

Surface mining

Surface mining is open pit mining. You mine what you see on the surface. Such as Strip mining or mountain top removal. Its basically where rocks and deposits are removed from the surface to find resources. Its more environmental friendly than sub-surface mining, and its also safer for the workers and employees. However, like sub-surface mining, surface mining can also have a bad impact on the environment. When resources are mined, they leave behind a trail or destruction and poison which linger and destroy the environment.


Fracking is when a machine drills down the earth and high pressured water is aimed towards rocks which help release the gas inside. The gas is then pumped back to the surface. Fracking has many controversies, as it is quite dangerous. It can contaminate city water with methane and other toxic chemicals that can harm the human body. It can contaminate the ground and the air as lots of the gas is released in the ground or the air. Its very dangerous.