The americas

The inca


There was no formal calendars but only a simple count of lunations.

Math/Number system

A quipu usually consisted of colorored,spun,and plied thread or string made from cotton or camelid fiber.


  • The basic unit of distance used by the Inca was one pace or a "thatki".


The Inca first appeared in the Andes region during the 12th century A.D. and gradually built a massive kingdom through the military strength of their emperors. Known as Tawantinsuyu, the Inca state spanned the distance of northern Ecuador to central Chile and consisted of 12 million inhabitants from more than 100 different ethnic groups at its peak.

Folk tales

Lamas were one of the many subjects for myths for the incas.

Tools and work animals

The chaki taklla, rawk'ana, and waqtana were used by Andean farmers for thousands of years.[

City and empire layout

Rather than build walls around their cities, each city had a fortress built beside it. In times of trouble, people ran to the fortress for protection. The rest of the time, the fortress housed the military.

Farming and Hunting

inca farmers did not have domesticated animals suitable for agricultural work so they relied on manual tools. These were well adapted to the hilly terrain of the Andes and to the limited-area platforms on which they farmed.


The Inca Empire developed in a long strip that reached pretty much north to south along the western side of South America, the side that faces the Pacific Ocean.

Trade and economy

The main industry of the Inca empire was farming—a very difficult endeavor on the cold, steep slopes of the Andes Mountains and on the desertlike coastal plains of Peru.

Government and taxes

In order to run the government, the Inca needed food and resources which they acquired through taxes.

Daily life and culture

the vast majority were working people whose lives were filled from dawn till dusk with hard work. In many ways, the Inca rulers were keen psychologists