by Kaillin Reid

Cool Fact:

During the summer the sun shines almost 24 hours a day, which is why the Arctic is also called the Land of the Midnight Sun.


The tundra biome is located in northern north america, greenland, northern europe, and northern russia.


The tundra is an extreme weather biome. It has a cold and dry climate. Rainfall totals to 6-10 inches of rain a year, including melted snow. This is almost as little as deserts.


The main seasons for tundras are winter and summer. The average yearly temperature is -18° F (-28° C). Some nights can last for weeks when the sun hardly rises during some months in the winter, and the temperature can drop to -94° F (-70° Average summer temperature is from 37° to 60°F (3° to 16°C).

Plant Life

The tundra biome does not have that much plant life because it is frozen most of the time. There are no trees but there are some moss, lichens, wildflowers and other small plants..

Plant Adaptations

  • Tundra plants are small and low-growing. Being close to the ground helps keep the plants from freezing
  • Plants are dark in color and some are red, this helps them absorb the sun´s heat.
  • Some plants are covered with fuzz which helps keep them warm.
  • Some plants grow in clumps for protection from wind and cold.
  • Some plants flowers that follow the sun helping the plant stay warm.

Food Web Animals and their adaptations

Food Web

The food web is very competitive in tundras because of the very limited resources

Animals and their adaptations

Arctic Hare

Its fur turns brown in the summer and white in the winter to help it adapt to the weather. It eats berries, twigs, mosses and other vegetation that can be found in tundra. They build shelters in the snow to keep them away from the cold.

Snowy Owl

It camouflages against the snow, which helps it catch its prey. It hunts day and night for rabbits, seagulls, and ducks. Their nest is on ground but higher so that they can see their prey and predators.


It stays in the Arctic Tundra. Their feathers change color depending on if it is summer or winter. They live in the North. You can usually find one high up on rocky slopes. Female and baby ptarmigans may prefer a bush so they have better protection from predators. The male prefers open areas so that they can see predators and other ptarmigans. They eat any vegetation that grows in tundra.

Polar Bear
Their fur blends in with the snow for protection and they can burrow dens in the snow for shelter.


Reindeer are very strong swimmers, which can help them get across bogs, streams or melted ice. Their hair can trap air in which provides them with excellent insulation. They live in alpine or arctic tundra.


The musk ox and the caribou have the same diet and compete for the limited natural resources in the tundra.

The red fox and the artic fox compete for food and territory.


Polar bears help out foxes by leaving scraps from their hunt for them to eat.

Lichen is a combination of fungi and algae working together.

Predator Prey Relationships

  • Polar bear hunts Arctic fox.
  • Arctic Wolf hunts Caribou.
  • Brown bear hunts Arctic hare.
  • Snowy owl hunts lemmings.

Ecological Concerns for tundras

  • The melting permafrost from global warming could change the land and what species can live there.
  • Ozone depletion means stronger sun rays that will harm the tundra.
  • Air pollution can cause smog that contaminates plants.
  • Exploration of oil, gas, pipelines, and roads can cause damage to tundras.
  • Oil spills can kill wildlife and damage ecosystems.
  • Buildings and roads can make permafrost melt.

Endangered species in tundras

Arctic Fox, Caribou, Polar Bear and Grizzly Bear.

Importance of tundras

The tundra plays a big role for the planet. It cools warm air and makes air and water currents. If tundras were eliminated then many birds would die and result in massive food chain disruption.Also many habitable places will become inhabitable.