Nazi Germany 1937-1938

BY: EVAN B./PRANAV A./SASHANK K.

Jewish Persecution and Deportation

1937 was the start of major Jewish persecution in Germany. It started with the forming of the Buchenwald Concentration Camp that held political Jewish prisoners. In 1938 all Jewish men were required to add "Israel" to their name and likewise the women had to add "Sarah" to their name. In the mid 1938's tens of thousands of Jews were expelled into Poland. Later that year all the Jews were fined and all Jewish children were expelled from public schools. In early November of that year all Jewish shops and businesses were demolished burned and ransacked, this event was known as "The Night of Broken Glass". If you objected, you were shot on sight and most, if not all, of the shop owners were sent to concentration camps.


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Buchenwald Concentration Camp

July 19, 1937 – Establishment of Buchenwald concentration camp –Buchenwald was one of the first and the biggest concentration camps. It was built in 1937 in Weimar, Germany. It was used to hold 20,000 prisoners and most of them worked as slaves in nearby factories. There weren't any gas chambers in Buchenwald, but many Jews died from disease, little food or the wrong kind of food, exhaustion, beatings, and executions. Prisoners were used to test the viruses and their vaccines. Jewish political figures were mainly sent here. Germans started to build these camps making Jews the victims. Bystanders, like the U.S., just watched.


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The Breaking of the Treaty of Versailles

September 7, 1937 – Hitler declares end of Treaty of Versailles-The Versailles Treaty, signed on June 28, 1919, was the peace settlement between Germany and the Allied Powers that officially ended World War I. However, the conditions in the treaty were so inflicting upon Germany that many believe the Treaty of Versailles laid the groundwork for the eventual rise of Nazis in Germany and the eruption of World War II. The perpetrator was Germany while the victims were the Allied Powers.


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Jewish Documentation

August 17, 1938 – All Jewish men in Germany required to add “Israel” to their names; all Jewish women required to add “Sarah”-In order for the Nazis to carry out their anti-Jewish policies, they had to know who was a Jew. One way of determining a person's "racial" background was through making all Jewish women adopt the middle name "Sarah" and Jewish men "Israel." The victims were the Jews in Germany while the perpetrators were the Nazis. The bystanders were the local german citizens.

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Munich Agreement

September 29, 1938 – Munich Agreement signed- This basically stated that Germany could have the Sudetenland and in return, Hitler promised not to make any further territorial demands in Europe. The meeting ended with Hitler, Chamberlain, Daladier and Mussolini signing the Munich Agreement which transferred the Sudetenland to Germany. The perpetrators were Germany, Britain, France and Italy While the victims was the Sudetenland (part of Czechoslovakia)

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Night of Broken Glass or "Kristallnacht"

November 9-10, 1938-"Kristallnacht" and "Night of Broken Glass"-Nazis in Germany vandalized Jewish homes, schools, and businesses and killed 100 Jews. After Kristallnacht, also called the "Night of Broken Glass," 30,000 Jewish men were arrested and sent to Nazi concentration camps. The perpetrators were the Nazis and Hitler while the victims were the Jews and their buildings. The bystanders, again, were countries like the U.S.

Axis Powers and WWII

1938 laid the foundation for World War Two. Hitler avoided the Treaty of Versailles which marked the end of World War One. He also started gaining control of other countries. These events were the spark for WWII because of Germany gaining power rapidly. 1938 Is also when most of the Axis Powers were found. Japan and Italy joined Germany that year. Japan also began its reign of power by taking over most of China and some of Mongolia then preceded to attack the Soviet Union west of China. Italy also began to move its troops north into Germany setting up outposts on their way in the countries they passed through.

Conclusion

These events affected the world by, obviously lowering the Jewish population of the world. It also shows just how far racial prejudice could go. When Germany signed the Munich Agreement, Europe thought that Germany would keep it's word. Instead they broke it, soon after. This made Europe believe that Germany could no longer be trusted. Germans also started to vandalize an kill Jews and their buildings. It looked to be a dark, sinister time for the Jews.


The main people who made these events effective were Adolf Hitler, Nazis, local German citizens, Herman Goering, Great Britain, Germany, France, and Italy.


We, as a society, can learn that we should never discriminate against any person because of their race, religion, physical condition, or beliefs. We should respect them and not harm them either physically and mentally. We as people should recognize that no leader should ever want death to so many people for any reason. Our society must respect life and help preserve it.

Germany Gaining Power

In 1938, Germany captured its first country, Austria, and the area signed to France during WWI. The Munich Agreement was also signed which gave Germany control of The Czechoslovak Sudetenland Area to try and appease Hitler. After these victories Hitler continued and capture other countries well into the 1940's. Aside from the Japanese and Italy, Germany had gained various support form foreign countries. Germany had helped with the civil war in Spain and in return Spain sent thousands of troops into Germany to help fight Europe. Germany had also forged relations with Finland, Thailand, and Iraq.


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