Peyton Murrell, Brennen Stockton, Henry Le, Bridgette Bui- 7

Independence Movements and Developments in Asia and Africa

Imperial nations had trouble controlling people and areas under their rule.

The Indian Subcontinent

The Indian National Congress and the Muslim League were made to protect the rights of the Indians under British rule. Peaceful protesters were unfairly killed by the British. Mohandas Ghandi's belief of passive resistance (civil disobedience) encourages peaceful protesting. Although they both wanted to take the British out of their country, the Muslims and Hindu's continued to have bad blood, resulting in their split.

Independence Won: Nations Two

Even though India gained their freedom the Hindu's and the Muslims continued to fight. Due to not seeing each other eye to eye, India split into India and Pakistan for the Hindus and Muslims. Due to the separation, things became crazy in the everyday lives of the people.


Africa was inspired by India and wanted to be free. Unequal laws between the black and white South Africans treated the whites better than the blacks, making the blacks feel bad about themselves. After South Africa won, many other nations followed their path. It was harder for other African countries to gain their freedom because they didn't have as many schools to become smarter. People were very different, making it hard for them to win. Great Britain didn't want to lose money so they were mean to African countries. The African countries got their freedom in different ways, but not all of them got what they wanted. Africa had many costly items causing colonial and industrial powers to stay interested in African nations.

Rwanda: Ethnic Genocide

Disagreement between Tutsi and Hutu during colonial rule and after led to genocide of many Tutsi people.

Developments in South Africa: The Rise and Fall of Apartheid

South African people had a lot of rights, but rights still separated by skin color. Nelson Mandela later became the leader of the African National Congress and supported peaceful protests, but then was arrested. In 1990, Nelson Mandela was freed and in 1994 apartheid (separation of race) ended.

The Middle East

After end of Ottoman Empire, the land was split into a lot of small countries. This will cause trouble and confusion.

Israel: Balfour Declares a Mess

A long time ago, Jews left Palestine to go to Europe. After World War I, the Jews needed land to live on and be by themselves. Arthur Balfour moves them to Palestine, this causes a lot of fighting between Jews and native Palestinians.

The Jewish Wait for a State Ends in 1948

Because of this fighting, the countries next to Palestine went to war on Israel because the people were Jewish. Israel won the war against the other countries, and got lots of land in the end, but lost some of it. The Palestinians killed people through terrorists attacks, to stop more attacks, Jews started making walls around places Palestinians lived, other countries did not like this at all. A group called the United Nations (UN) made a little truce between the groups.

The Iranian Revolution: The Shah Gets Shooed

Reza Shah Pahlavi becomes the ruler of Iran and makes changes that were against some of the cultures in the country, making his people mad. He kept making changes anyways, so the people took his power away and made the ayatollah ("Mirror of God") Khomeini their leader. After he became the leader, Iraq attacked Iran for land and the war ended in a tie. Now Iran is full of people wanting to change the country and people wanting to go by their culture, with new bombs that could end up hurting other countries being made and the US angry at them for making the bombs. The war between Iran and Iraq, their new bombs, and their way of making those bombs will end up making things go bad for them.

Oil: Enormous Amounts of Good

The Middle East had goo that became liked by others due to the Industrial Revolution and led to fights over goo, aka oil. Middle East became bossy and controlled the amount of oil given out.