IPS - Study Guide for Quiz #1

Ava Goldstone

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Safety

For Every Lab

- Goggles must be kept OVER YOUR EYES until Mr. Leeds says to put them away (even if you are already done and cleaned up)

- Report ALL accidents/spills to Mr. Leeds immediately

- Try your best to use common sense


In Case of Emergency

- Nurse Extension: 2828


Safety Equipment in the Classroom

- Fire extinguisher

- Fire blanket

- Eye wash/shower station


Chemicals

- Never taste chemicals

- Always WAFT liquids to detect odor

- NEVER WAFT SOLIDS/POWDERS!

- Avoid touching chemicals

- Always wash your hands with soap and water after the lab

- If chemicals touch your skin: flush your skin with water for 1 minute AND notify Mr. Leeds


Glass

- Hot and cold glass look the same

- Never use chipped or broken glass - if this happens, tell Mr. Leeds and dispose of the broken glass into the proper trash

- Never use force to remove or insert glass


Alcohol Burners

- Roll up sleeves and put UP long hair, not just pull back (or you can not do the lab)

- Never walk away from a lit burner

- Never point the open end of a hot test tube at yourself or someone else

- Do not look down into a test tube/beaker while it is being heated

- Make sure that the burner is capped and the flame is out when you are done


End of Experiment

- CLEAN-UP AREA & MATERIALS COMPLETELY! (OR ELSE POINTS WILL BE LOST)

- Make certain that the burner is out, if one was used in the lab

- Keep goggles on (over your eyes) until Mr. Leeds says to put them away

Lab: Reaction in a Bag

Purpose: To record the observations that occur when multiple chemical substances are combined and to use my observations to understand the reactions of the chemicals.


Lab Safety:

- wear goggles

- wear apron


Experimental Error:

- Hole in the bag - you would not know a gas is produced.


Conclusion: The purpose of the Reaction in a Bag lab was to record the observations that occur when multiple chemical substances are combined and to use my observations to understand the reactions of the chemicals. We were given two white solids (chemicals) to combine with a red liquid. We put them in a Ziploc bag, sealed it, and watched them react. We saw that they reacted together. We saw yellow, which was warm, and pink, which was cold, and the bag filled with gas. I have come to the conclusion that when the solids and the liquids were mixed, they reacted and there was a color change, temperature change, and gas production. I have come to this conclusion because during the lab, my observations and the data have shown that when Solid A mixes with a liquid, it got hot (exothermic reaction). When Solid B and a liquid combine, it got cold (endothermic reaction). When Solids A, B, and a liquid combine, it forms a gas.

Scholar Reaction In The Bag Inquiry Demonstration and Lab Activity

Lab: Heating Baking Soda

Purpose: To observe and record the reaction that occurs when baking soda is heated.


Lab Safety:

- Wear goggles and aprons (wear until told to take off).

- Pull back hair and sleeves.

- Do not use force when handling the glass test tubes.

- When the experiment is complete, cap the burner.

- Know the location of all of the safety equipment in the classroom, the fire - extinguisher, the fire blanket, and the eye wash/shower station.

- Be aware of the temperatures of the test tubes.

- Check for cracks and chips in the test tubes.

- Do not walk away from the burner when it is lit.

- Do not point the hot test tubes at anyone and do not lean over and look into it while being heated.


Experimental Errors:

- Hole in the rubber tubing - will not see the bottle fill with gas

- Stopper not snug (human error)

- Stirring rod is not clean at the beginning - contaminate


Conclusion:

The purpose of the Heating Baking Soda lab was to observe and record the reaction that occurs when baking soda is heated. A chemical reaction occurred when the baking soda was heated. In the first part of the lab, when the baking soda is heated, condensation formed in the test tube and came from the baking soda. In the second part of the lab, when the tea was added to the baking soda, the liquid in the test tube changed. I have come to the conclusion that there was a chemical change when the baking soda was heated. I have come to this conclusion because during the lab I observed that the baking soda changed.


Extra Question:

The amount of condensation that forms at the top of the heated test tube is less than the amount of baking soda being heated. My reasoning behind my this is that the condensation comes from the baking soda. It cannot produce more than itself.


Take a look at this video...


Lab 1.1 Heating Baking Soda

Blue Dot Questions for Heating Baking Soda

1. At the bottom of the test tube, the baking soda is not doing anything; it appears to be staying the same. Towards the end, a few bubbles emerged.

2. At the top of the test tube, condensation is forming.

3. The water in the inverted bottle is slowly coming out and moving into the container, which is gradually filling up with more and more water.

4. I think that the gas came from the baking soda in the test tube.

5. I think that the droplets on the test tube are condensation, water collecting on the glass.

6. The colors of the liquids are different. The cool test tube is a lighter yellow-orange and the warm test tube is a darker yellow-orange.

7. I think that the two white powders are not the same substance due to the fact that the one that was heated released hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, altering the substance.


Volume

Unit of Measurement: cubic centimeters


Volume = l x w x h

Standard Unit of Length: meters (m)

1 centimeter (1 cm.) = 0.01 m centi = 100

Unit Cube - a small cube that is 1 centimeter on each side.


Volume of Liquids

- use a graduated cylinder to measure the volume: Always check the intervals or scale.

- Read from the bottom of the meniscus


Units = milliliters (mL) OR cm^3

1 mL = 1 cm^3



Click on the link embedded below to view a Powerpoint all about Volume.


Balance

1. Check that the pan is always clean and dry.

2. Always "zeroes" balance before EACH massing.

- Push all riders to zero (to the left).

- Use adjusting knob if needed.

3. NEVER switch pans.

4. Pick up the balance by the red bar.

5. Do not zero balance when done.

Box Questions

1. I think that baking soda is used in baking because when it is heated, it releases a gas that causes dough/batter to rise.


3. 50 cm^3


4. height or width of Box A will be greater


5. 7 cm^3


6.

  • a) 8 cubes
  • b) 27 cubes
  • c) 8 cm^3 (A), 27 cm^3 (B)


7. second rectangular box

  • 1: 30 x 15 x 10 = 4,500 cm^3
  • 2: 25 x 16 x 15 = 6,000 cm^3


8. The more surface, the less depth/ height there is. The less surface, the more depth/height there is.


9.

a)

  • I. 1.2 cm.
  • II. 3.7 cm.

b)

  • III. 1.65 cm.
  • IV. 2.51 cm.
  • V. 4.50 cm.

c) More accurate


10. Each cylinder's marks go by:

  • a) 0.1 cm^3
  • b) 0.2 cm^3


11.

  • a) 4.0 cm^3
  • b) 1.30 cm^3


12.

  • 12 cm: 11.5 cm ---- 12.4 cm
  • 12.0 cm: 11.95 cm ---- 12.04 cm
  • 12.00 cm: 11.995 cm ---- 12. 004 cm


13. The advantage is that the lines are further apart because you have less surface, which equals more depth. This makes is easier to read.


Words to Know

Solid A: calcium chloride - mildly acidic; hydrotropic (attracted to water, absorbs water); USES: canned veggies (keeps them from getting mushy); electrolyte in sports drinks; flavors pickles (salty flavor)


Solid B: sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) - not acidic; USES: baking; toothpaste; laundry detergent; cat litter


Red liquid: phenol red - below 7 turns yellow and above 8 turns pink; used to test pools; used as a ph indicator --> ph scale: measures acidity; goes from 0-14; 0 = acid and 7 = neutral and 14 = alkaline. Examples: lemon juice (1.5); Tums (10)


Exothermic - out heat


Endothermic - take in the heat


Condensation - moisture, fog (comes from heating the baking soda)


Control group: unheated test tube


Experimental group: heated test tube


Indicator: tea (shows that the heated test tube is not baking soda)


Variable: something that you try to measure


Independent variable: causes a change in the dependent variable - temperature (heat)


Dependent variable: color of the tea


Control factor: same type of tea, same amount of tea, same amount of baking soda, same temperature, same stirring time, same size test tube