History of DNA

Hunter, Sam, Jared

James Watson

James D. Watson began his investigation of the structure of DNA, and, in the spring of 1951, he went to the Zoological Station at Naples, where he met Maurice Wilkins and saw for the first time crystalline DNA's X-ray diffraction pattern. That fall, Watson moved his research to the University of Cambridge's Cavendish Laboratory, where he continued his work with X-rays, learning diffraction techniques. He also met Francis Crick, who shared his interest in puzzling out the structure of DNA. The pair began their historic work soon after.

Big image

Francis Crick

Watson convinced Crick that unlocking the secrets of DNA's structure would both provide the answer to Schrödinger's question which was "How can the events of space and time which take place within the ... living organism be accounted for by physics and chemistry?" and this would reveal DNA's hereditary role. Using X-ray diffraction studies of DNA, in 1953, Watson and Crick constructed a molecular model representing the known physical and chemical properties of DNA. It consisted of two intertwined spiral strands, resembling a twisted ladder (referred to as the "double helix"). They hypothesized that if the two sides split from one another, each side would become the basis for a pattern for the formation of new strands identical to their former partners.
Big image

Maurice Wilkins

Wilkins studied biological molecules like DNA and viruses using a variety of microscopes and spectrophotometers. He eventually began using X-rays to produce diffraction images of DNA molecules. The X-ray diffraction images produced by him, Rosalind Franklin, and Raymond Gosling led to the deduction by James Watson and Francis Crick of the 3-dimensional helical nature of DNA. Wilkins shared the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Watson and Crick.
Big image

Rosalind Franklin

Rosalind was an English chemist and an X-Ray crystallographer who made many contributions to the understanding of D.N.A. She helped find the structure of DNA in 1953 and RNA in viruses and the molecules of coal and graphite. She Helped find the the structure of D.N.A and RNA in viruses and the molecules of coal and graphite.
Big image

Oswald Avery

After graduating from Colgate University, he accepted a research position at the Rockefeller Institute Hospital. In 1944, he and his coworkers discovered that DNA carries a cell’s genetic material and can be altered through transformation Which is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake. He did not receive a Nobel Prize, but his research led to understanding the genetic code.
Big image

Linus Pauling

Linus pauling used the version of DNA structure before watson and cricks version was released to discover his alpha helix.In 1953 he claimed he had found the structure of DNA. He proposed a three chained helix. After finding out that this could not work he raced to find the correct orientation of DNA. He gave Watson and Crick a better idea of how DNA was formed when he discovered his alpha helix and Watson and Crick later discovered it was a double helix.
Big image

Erwin Chargaff

Chargaff discovered two rules that helped lead to the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA on the 11th of August 1905. The first rule was that in DNA the number of guanine units equals the number of cytosine units, and the number of adenine units equals the number of thymine units. This hinted at the base pair makeup of DNA. The second rule was that the relative amounts of guanine, cytosine, adenine and thymine bases varies from one species to another. This hinted that DNA rather than protein could be the genetic material.
Big image

Frederick Sanger

Frederick Sanger is an English biochemist who twice received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry. In 1958 for his discovery of the structure of the insulin molecule, and in 1980 for his collaborative work on base sequences in nucleic acids with Paul Berg and Walter Gilbert. He discovered the nucleic acids so we could remake or rebuild our DNA in the future. He is widely considered to be the greatest and most influential biochemists in history.

Big image

Allan Maxam

Allan Maxam is one of the pioneers of molecular genetics. He was one of the contributors to develop a DNA sequencing method at Harvard University, while working as a student in the laboratory of Walter Gilbert. Walter Gilbert and Allan Maxam developed a DNA sequencing method which combined chemicals that cut DNA only at specific bases with radioactive labeling and electrophoresis through acrylamide gels to determine the sequence of long DNA segments. He won the Nobel Prize in 1980 because of his work in the chemical method of sequencing DNA.
Big image

Elizabeth Blackburn

Elizabeth Blackburn discovered the molecular nature of telomeres – the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes that serve as protective caps essential for preserving the genetic information – and co-discovered the ribonucleoprotein enzyme, telomerase in the mid 1980's along with her graduate student, Carol Greider. Professor Blackburn and her research team at UCSF are working with various cells (including human cells), with the goal of understanding telomerase and telomere biology. They also collaborate in investigating the roles of telomere biology in human health and diseases, in clinical and other human studies.

Big image