African History

By: Madison Lindberg

Africa Colonization Map

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Apartheid In South Africa

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21st Century Issues In Africa

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Independence In Africa

Africa went from a continent of colonies to many independent countries free of European rule. So how did they do it? Pan-Africanism is one contributor to the independence. Pan-Africanism is the idea that there is a global community made up of native Africans and descendants of African slaves and migrants. It began in the late 1800s as a way to get equal rights, independence, self-government, and unity for African people. Nationalism also helped gain independence for the African people. Nationalism is a strong pride in one’s country and a desire for self-government. Nationalist movements tried to earn independence. Nigeria is one of these countries that gained independence. In the 1940s, Nigerians began to push for independence. Groups fighting British rule eventually became political parties. In the late 1940s and 1950s, Great Britain allowed Nigeria to elect its own government. In 1957, they elected Abubkar Tafawa Balewa as their Prime Minister. On October 1, 1960 Nigeria was given independence. One unique thing about Nigeria’s independence was that they didn’t have to use war to gain independence. Kenya was also struggling for independence at the time Nigeria was. Most Kenyans thought British rule was unfair, so in 1952 they organized a secret group called the Mau Mau. This group thought the only way to end British rule was through violence. By 1954, Britain had mostly defeated the Mau Mau, but violence continued between the groups until 1960. In 1963, Britain gave Kenya its independence and helped them hold an election. They elected Jomo Kenyatta as president. South Africa also had a long struggle for independence. In 1948, apartheid was established in South Africa. Apartheid is an official policy of discrimination against a racial group. Back in 1912, the African National Congress was formed to protest poor treatment. The ANC fought for freedom and peace. In the 1950s and 60s, the ANC and other similar groups received lots of support from outside South Africa. In the 1970s, lots of pressure was placed on South Africa to end apartheid. In the 1990s, FW de Klerk ended apartheid. In 1994, Nelson Mandela was elected as South Africa’s first democratically elected president, and so South Africa gained its independence.. It was a long road to freedom for the nations of Africa, but with determination and persistence, they achieved their goal of independence