Canada 2035

Building A Better Tomorrow, Today

Indroduction

Canada is one of the most prospering countries in the world, but will it stay like this forever? Our nation is at the peak of its developed stage, and now we need to start worrying about sustaining the economy. Will Canada still be the top choice for immigrants, will the fertile land and climate stay as balanced as it is, how will we take advantage of our stock of natural resources, and can we stop the effects of urban sprawl, these are the questions that we have to take into account to know if Canada will maintain its position as the best country to live in 2035.

Changing Populations

Canada has the highest population increase among all of the G7 countries, despite its declining birth rate. Canada's aging population has resulted in a shortage in the labor force, so they have resorted to attracting immigrants to make up for it. There are many reasons immigrants choose Canada as their destination; improved living condition, better job opportunities, religious acceptance, climate, and to join their families. I think Canada will be a desired destination for immigration, because most of these reasons will stay the same. The bulk of immigrants presently are people from developing countries looking for improved living conditions and better job opportunities, and refugees. This will stay the same because Canada already has a decreasing population and is relying on immigrants for the work force, so we will welcome as much immigrants and refugees as we can. Other then that, religious persecution isn't going to change so people will still come here to avoid it.


Canada will be attracting immigrants in the skilled worker class because Canada is in demand for workers with high skills such as doctors, lawyers, and engineers, and the point system devised for immigrants will allow that. Location wise Canada will be attracting people from Asia and the middle east because that's from where people come for better living conditions and Canada is known for that.


Canada's population is aging, and the ideal working age population is declining. This is because the birth rate is decreasing since people are deciding to have smaller families. No sign of change is coming to that so the population will only continue to age. By 2030, 28.5 per cent of the population is projected to be the age of 60, and we would have entered stage 5 of the demographic transition model, so our birth rate will be low and our death rate will be high.

The First Nations, Metis, and Inuit population will face the issue that they will have to leave their culture and take up a modern lifestyle. The Canadian government intended to do this through a process called "enfranchisement". This is that any female status Indian that marries a non-native, any status Indian that earns a university degree or is entitled to any piece of land, loses his status. Residential schools have even been built on reserves for aboriginal children to attend, another tactic to make them abandon their culture. The natives could not even own the land of the reservations, and were forced to adapt a more agricultural life then their traditional hunting lifestyle. All this was done to try and civilize the aboriginals into a modern life.The transition has already begun, with more and more aboriginals leaving the reserves and coming to live in the urban centers. In the next 25 years, reserves are projected to be completely abolished.

Interactions In The Physical Environment

Canada's climate varies from north to the south, since it's a very big country. Up north, most of the year is below freezing. Near the southern border closer to the equator though, there is a drastic difference as there are four distinct seasons throughout the year, and this is where almost all of the population is. Over here, the temperature can get as hot as 35 degrees Celsius in the summer and drop to as cold as -25 degrees Celsius in the winter. To get a better understanding of the climate of Canada, since it is so vast, we need to look at individual regions and factors affecting the climate in that area.


The west coast has the warmest climate in Canada, even though given it's latitude it should be pretty cold. This is because ocean currents have a big affect on the climate in this region. The Pacific ocean carries warm water down south as far as California up north along the coast, and air streams blow over this water, heating up, and onto British Columbia, giving the coast the most temperate climate and hardly any snow year round.


The Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Lowlands have hot and humid summers and unpredictable winters. Nearness to water plays a great role in this regions climate as it is right on the banks of the Great Lakes. Water changes temperature slower then the land and air, so it can moderate the temperature from what it actually is, this is called the moderating effect. Also being close to large bodies of water causes more precipitation, and in the summer this region can have up to 100 cm of rain each year because of the humidity. Also the latitude is close to the equator giving a warmer climate. The winter is very unpredictable because the moderating effect and latitude should depict that the climate be warmer then most of Canada, but wind and air masses cause make a difference here. The arctic winds from the north can cause temperatures to drop to as low as -30 degrees Celsius, and the gulf stream from the east collides with this and can cause very dangerous convectional precipitation.


The Prairies is mostly dry because of the factor of relief. The rocky mountains block the moist air from the Pacific Ocean and dry air falls back on the leeward side, making the prairies have very less precipitation and not well suited for agriculture.


In the east the Labrador Current meets the Gulf stream cooling the air and causing frequent fog.


Canada is divided into 7 vegetation zones:

The Tundra- too cold to grow any more than shrubs and mosses


The Boreal and Tiagra forest- largest vegetation zone and has good precipitation but harsh winters


The mixed forest- has a warm climate, good precipitation, humus in soil, and long growing season


Deciduous Forest- warm climate, rich soil, a lot of precipitation, long growing season


Grasslands- hot and dry climate, difficult for tree growth but good for wheat crops


Cordilleran Vegetation- cooler temperatures, precipitation leeches through the thin soils, little tree growth


West Coast Forest- warm climate, lots of precipitation, long growing season, leached soils


Canada is also divided into regions by it's physical landscape and how the physical features such as the types of rocks and tectonic boundaries formed the region, and in what geological era.


Climate change has a big effect on the physical environment. The most noticeable one is that glaciers are melting. Also sea levels are rising and that increases risks of flooding in coastal areas. Another effect is that their are more heat waves resulting in more forest fires, this and erosion are the cause of forests shrinking. Water supplies are shortening because of drought.

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Managing Canada's Resources and Industries

One of Canada's most important resources will be energy, specifically energy generated from renewable resources, such as hydro- electricity. Canada was the top hydro power producer with 12% of world production. 75% of power in three of our provinces is generated through hydro-electricity and provides tens of thousands of jobs to people, such as geologists and electricians. Since flowing water is a renewable resource, it will be a very important part of Canada's economy without depleting in any way. Wind power generated through wind turbines is also a clean and efficient way to produce energy, and is one of the fastest growing methods of electrical generation in the world, and will provide handy in the coming years. Using these renewable methods of energy production will limit the amount of fossil fuels we burn to do so, giving us more for other uses such as trade.


Another resource that will be very important in 2035 is oil. Canada has the world's third largest oil reserves in the world, accounts for 22 per cent of Alberta's GDP, and employs over 100,000 people. Production is expected to grow from the current level of 1.98 million barrels per day to 5.2 million barrels per day 2030. Oil Sands-related investment is expected generate $79.4 billion in government revenues between 2012 and 2035. Canada's energy sector (mining.oil,natural gas) is the largest contributor to its annual GDP, and is projected to stay that way. Lumber will also be a very important resource. Those are the resources I think will be important in 2035.


Canada will manage these resources in a sustainable manner using three methods; sustainable yield management, sustainable resource development, and being aware of tragedy of the commons. Sustainable yield management is knowing the amount of a resource that can be harvested without depleting the resource, meaning harvesting at a rate that allows the resource to replenish itself. Sustainable resource development is meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. For example, if we take trees, we cut them down only so much that we have the wood that we need, but not fast enough that their not able to grow back in time. The "Tragedy of the Commons" is when a natural resource is consumed by many nations with little care taken for any of the resources well being. For this we can take the example of fish, as many nations have over harvested the oceans and many species have already gone extinct. If we take into account these methods, we can sustain the resources that would otherwise that we will have in 2035 for many future generations.


Canada is ranked 14th in the world for annual GDP and is worth 2.94% of the worlds economy, and is ranked 9th in the world for GDP per capita. Canada is connected to the rest of the world through trade and globalization with international free trade agreements and trans-national corporations. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) allows free trade between Canada, USA, and Mexico, which is very important because over 75.7% of Canada's trade is with NAFTA partners. Trans-national corporations, a result of globalization, allow Canadian companies to operate in many different countries. The advantages of this are lower prices products, more employment worldwide, and higher product output.

Liveable Communities

Canadian cities are facing the issue of urban sprawl. Urban sprawl is the encroachment of an urban center into the surrounding rural or farm land on the edge of a city. Low density, single family homes spread over large areas. Urban sprawl is an issue because of transportation costs, we are taking up agricultural and environmentally sensitive areas, it is related to many health issues such as obesity and air pollution, and infrastructure issues such as providing energy and water. Urban sprawl will be an issue in 2035 because we have a growing population to accommodate it we need to develop more land. However, there are ways to limit urban sprawl by the year 2035, such as infills and high density residential areas. Infills are used in urban planning and mean to rededicate land in urban centers, usually open space, into residential land. By doing so, we do not have to expand the city outward into agricultural land. High density residential areas are usually areas with apartments and small compact houses, and not low density homes on large lots. This allows less space to be used in residential land and also makes everything close together, promoting walking and biking to places and causing less traffic congestion. Canadian cities can take some initiatives to be sustainable in 2035. We can build more transit, bicycle, and pedestrian oriented cities to reduce road maintenance costs, pollution, and have much shorter commute times. We can develop more technologies to avoid blackouts and water shortages. We can abide by regulations prohibiting developing environmentally sensitive land. This is how Canadian cities can be sustainable by the year 2035.
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