Russia and the Western Republic
In the 9th century Vikings came to take advantage of the river trade between the two seas. Vikings adopted the customs of the Slavic population.
Expansion was paused in the 13th century with the arrival of invaders from Mongolia, called Tatars. The Mongols defeated the Tatars and then controlled the region until the 1500s, when Ivan the Great, the powerful prince of Moscow, put an end to their rule.
Russian science and technology lagged behind that of its European rivals. Peter the Great, who was emperor of Russia from 1682-1725, tried to change this. For example, he moved Russia’s capital from Moscow to a city on the Baltic Sea.