ANIMATION

Step 1 With your partner, study how THAUMATROPES, FLIP BOOKS and PHENAKISTASCOPES are made.

FOLLOW THE STEPS TO MAKE YOUR OWN THAUMATROPE, FLIP BOOK AND PHENAKISTASCOPE.

Thaumatropes

Thaumatrope, means "turning marvel" or "wonder turner." Thaumatropes were the first of many optical toys, simple devices for animated entertainment before movies and T.V.

How it works:

A thaumatrope is a small disc, held on opposite sides of its circumference by pieces of string. An image is drawn on each side of the disc, and is selected in such a way that when the disc is spun, the two images appear to become superimposed.

To spin the disc, one string is held in a hand, and the disc is rotated to wind the string.

Then, both strings are held, and the disc is allowed to rotate. Gently stretching the strings will ensure that they continue to unwind and rewind.

This motion causes the disc to rotate, first in one direction and then in the opposite. The faster the disc rotates, the greater the clarity of the illusion.

The bird-cage pair of images were used on the first thaumatrope, and is the most common one seen on thaumatropes today.

See the video below:

Thaumatrope: Bird & Cage

STEP 2 Make a Thaumatrope using 2 circles and two rubber bands

You will need

2 rubber bands

Scissors

Printed images

hole punch

Crayons

glue stick

What to do

Color the bird.

Cut out the two large circles.

Glue them together.

Punch two holes. HINT: Punch them closer to the center than the printed holes on the circles so the holes don't rip when you insert the rubber band.

Pinch the rubber band into the circle, pull the other half of the rubber band through this loop so it will stay in the hole. Repeat with the other rubber band.

FLIPBOOKS

HOW IT WORKS:

A flip book is a collection of combined pictures intended to be flipped over to give the illusion of movement and create an animated sequence from a simple small book.

See the video below:

STEP 4 MAKE A FLIPBOOK

You will need:

Grid paper

Pencil

Stapler

What to do

Use the grid paper to draw a series of images. TIP: Draw each image in the same corner. Start with the last image and 'trace' over it....like the 'onion skin' method.

Staple the stack.

Flip the book to see your image come to life!

PHENAKISTOSCOPE

History:

Dating back to 1832, the Phenakistoscope (Fen-a-KIST-o-scope) is probably the oldest device to actually produce motion pictures. The inventor, Joseph Plateau, was partially blind.

Earlier in life he had stared at the sun for 20 minutes to test out his persistence of vision. The sun’s glaring image stayed in his eyes for several weeks after that, not because of persistence of vision, but because the bright rays had burned holes in the backs of his eyes!

In the months that followed, his eyesight grew progressively worse, and it was during this period that he dreamed up his ingenious way of producing motion pictures.

How to Operate the Phenakistoscope:

To work this gadget, hold it by the handle in front of a mirror, making sure the drawing

side is facing the mirror. Then spin the disc while looking through the slits. The drawings on your phenakistoscope will spring to life.