The Protestant Reform

- Martin Luther, a monk of Wittenberg, talented writer.

- Writings sparked debates on theological issues.

- Attacked Roman church for a wide range of abuses and called for reform.

- Christians, princes, and many cities responded enthusiastically.

- Mid 16th century, 50% German population adopted Lutheran Christianity.

- Protestant movements were popular in other European countries.

- England - Reformation twisted with King Henry VIII's divorce.

- John Calum - French lawyer converted to Protestant - went to Geneva.

Treaty of Westphalia

- On October 24th, 1648, the Treaty of Westphalia was signed, marking the end of the thirty years war.

- Started when the Austrian Habsburgs tried to impose Roman Catholicism on their Protestant subjects in Bohemia.

- France, Spain, Swedes, Panes, Poles, Russians, Dutch, and the Swiss were dragged in or dived in.

- War was largely fought on German Soil.

- Involved no fewer than 194 states.

- Represented by 179 plenipotentiaries.

- The treaty gave the swiss independence of Austria and the Netherlands independence of Spain.

- The Roman Catholic reconquest vanished and Protestant stayed.

Catholic Counter Reformation

- Assembly of bishops and cardinals - addressed matter of reform (Council of Trent)

- Met intermittently to define theology in detail - drew heavily from the works of St. Thomas Aquinas.

- Became more focused on education; not solely based on monetary value (schools and seminaries to prep priests)

- To clarify differences between Roman and Protestant churches.

- Society of Jesus founded by St. Ignatius Loyola - small band of disciplines.

- Members known as Jesuits, had to complete rigorous and advanced education - made for effective missionaries - theology, philosophy, classical language, lit, history, and science.

- Served as counsellors to kings and rulers.

- Most prominent of the early Christian of missionaries outside Europe.

Louis XIV

- Also known as the Sun King, led a centralization of France.

- He moved capital to Versailles, creating a city dedicated to the monarchy.

- He expelled non-catholics.

- Created a centralized, catholic state.

- Led to divide between Catholic and Protestant churches in Europe.

- Court officials tended to his every need.

- Louis gave nobles luxurious accommodations and entertainment in exchange for absolute rule.

- Controlled massive standing army.

- Abolished internal tariffs and encouraged exports.

- Waged a series of wars to enlarge French boundaries.