The Protestant Reform
- Writings sparked debates on theological issues.
- Attacked Roman church for a wide range of abuses and called for reform.
- Christians, princes, and many cities responded enthusiastically.
- Mid 16th century, 50% German population adopted Lutheran Christianity.
- Protestant movements were popular in other European countries.
- England - Reformation twisted with King Henry VIII's divorce.
- John Calum - French lawyer converted to Protestant - went to Geneva.
Treaty of Westphalia
- Started when the Austrian Habsburgs tried to impose Roman Catholicism on their Protestant subjects in Bohemia.
- France, Spain, Swedes, Panes, Poles, Russians, Dutch, and the Swiss were dragged in or dived in.
- War was largely fought on German Soil.
- Involved no fewer than 194 states.
- Represented by 179 plenipotentiaries.
- The treaty gave the swiss independence of Austria and the Netherlands independence of Spain.
- The Roman Catholic reconquest vanished and Protestant stayed.
Catholic Counter Reformation
- Met intermittently to define theology in detail - drew heavily from the works of St. Thomas Aquinas.
- Became more focused on education; not solely based on monetary value (schools and seminaries to prep priests)
- To clarify differences between Roman and Protestant churches.
- Society of Jesus founded by St. Ignatius Loyola - small band of disciplines.
- Members known as Jesuits, had to complete rigorous and advanced education - made for effective missionaries - theology, philosophy, classical language, lit, history, and science.
- Served as counsellors to kings and rulers.
- Most prominent of the early Christian of missionaries outside Europe.
- He moved capital to Versailles, creating a city dedicated to the monarchy.
- He expelled non-catholics.
- Created a centralized, catholic state.
- Led to divide between Catholic and Protestant churches in Europe.
- Court officials tended to his every need.
- Louis gave nobles luxurious accommodations and entertainment in exchange for absolute rule.
- Controlled massive standing army.
- Abolished internal tariffs and encouraged exports.
- Waged a series of wars to enlarge French boundaries.