Brain Cancer

Abby Tesconi & Hannah Rawitscher

DEFINITION

Tumors in the brain can be cancerous or benign, and can occur at any age. Primary brain cancer tumors initially form in the brain tissue. Secondary brain tumors are cancers that have spread to the brain tissue from elsewhere in the body. Secondary brain cancer is named for the organ or tissue in which the cancer begins, such as lung cancer with secondary brain metastasis.

(image from huffingtonpost.com)

SYMPTOMS

For brain cancer, symptoms don’t begin to occur until the tumor is large enough to damage brain tissue.


People who have had the surgery to remove brain tumors, can still have bad side effects that include but are not limited to; problems with thought, speech and coordination, seizures, or weakness. Physical therapy can help with these effects.


Symptoms: Headaches, nausea, seizures, dizziness, personality changes, loss of vision, memory loss, speech problems, sensory changes, and weakness on part of the body

What are the Symptoms of Brain Tumors?
(video from Cancer Treatment Centers of America)

HOW COMMON IS BRAIN CANCER?

700,000 people in the United States are living with the diagnosis of central nervous system or primary brain tumors. In addition, 66,290 cases of primary brain tumors are expected to be diagnosed this year. Brain cancer is most common in children ages 0-19, the second leading cause of cancer death. Glioblastoma, the most common and deadliest form of brain cancer is diagnosed in 10,000 Americans each year.

(image from digitaltrends.com)

Big image
(image from PLGA Foundation)

DIAGNOSES

The most common imaging tests used for diagnosing a brain tumor include:


  • MRI. An MRI uses magnetic fields to produce images of the body
  • CT scan. A 3D picture inside the body with an x-ray machine
  • PET scan. Create pictures of organs and tissues inside the body
  • Cerebral arteriogram. X-ray of the arteries in the brain
  • Lumbar puncture or spinal tap. Procedure where a doctor uses a needle to take a sample of cerebrospinal (CSF) fluid to look for tumor cells, blood, or tumor markers
  • Myelogram. Uses a dye injected into the CSF. The dye shows up on an x-ray to help the doctor look for a tumor


In almost every case, if a tumor is found, a doctor will take a sample to test if it is cancerous.

POSSIBLE CAUSES

Age, medical radiation, previous cancers, genetic conditions, family history, and body size could possibly be causes of brain tumors/cancer, although there are no definite causes


Age

  • older = increased chance of brain tumors

  • some types are more common in young adults

  • 2nd most common type of cancer in kids


Medical Radiation

  • only definite risk factor known

  • CT scans, X-rays, radiotherapy increase risk


Previous cancers

  • may be because of previous treatment


Genetic Conditions

  • intermediate family being diagnosed would increase risk


Other Medical Conditions and Medicines

  • having HIV/Aids double risk

  • hormone replacement may increase risk


Body Size and Exercise

  • overweight = increased risk


Factors that May Reduce Risk

  • some allergies reduce risk

Big image
(image from cancerfactscentral.org)

CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR LEVEL

The protein NKCC1, may cause cancer to spread throughout glioblastoma cells at a faster pace. Currently, life expectancy is fifteen months with a diagnosis of this deadly form of cancer. By blocking the protein, scientists could be able to slow the movement of the cells.

TREATMENTS

Treatment depends on the location as well as size of the brain tumor. There are also varying treatments depending on the patients age. Usually the process is complex, so there will most likely be a team of doctors. Chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery are most common treatments. However, there are only four FDA approved brain tumor treatments so there are not a great deal of options.
(video from Cancer Treatment Center of America)

Works Consulted

“Brain Cancer Treatment.” WebMD. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2015.

<http://www.webmd.com/cancer/brain-cancer/brain-cancer-treatment>.


“Brain Tumour Risks and Causes.” Cancer Research UK. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2015.

<http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-cancer/type/brain-tumour/about/brain-tumour-risks-and-causes>.


Johns Hopkins “Research Yields New Clues to how Brain Cancer Cells Migrate and Invade.” ENP Newswire 3 May 2012. Science in Context. Web. 16 Dec. 2015.

<http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/scic/NewsDetailsPage/NewsDetailsWindow?failOverType=&query=&prodId=SCIC&windowstate=normal&contentModules=&display-query=&mode=view&displayGroupName=News&limiter=&currPage=&disableHighlighting=false&displayGroups=&sortBy=&search_within_results=&p=SCIC&action=e&catId=&activityType=&scanId=&documentId=GALE%7CA288524452&source=Bookmark&u=amhe95753rpa&jsid=6ab8cfcd57c772b7086e0b28883720d6>.


“Brain Tumor Statistics.” American Brain Tumor Association. American Brain Tumor Association, 2014. Web. 16 Dec. 2015. <http://www.abta.org/about-us/news/brain-tumor-statistics/>.


“Cancer.” UXL Encyclopedia of Science. N.p.: Gale, 2015. N. pag. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 16 Dec. 2015. <http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/scic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?failOverType=&query=&prodId=SCIC&windowstate=normal&contentModules=&display-query=&mode=view&displayGroupName=Reference&limiter=&currPage=&disableHighlighting=true&displayGroups=&sortBy=&search_within_results=&p=SCIC&action=e&catId=&activityType=&scanId=&documentId=GALE%7CCV2644300214&source=Bookmark&u=amhe95753rpa&jsid=6ee68f32841b86ae21b832a5fdf8ef9a>.


Cherath, Lata, and Michael Sullivan, M.S. “Cancer.” The Gale of Encyclopedia of Science. N.p.: Gale, 2014. N. pag. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 16 Dec. 2015. <http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/scic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?failOverType=&query=&prodId=SCIC&windowstate=normal&contentModules=&display-query=&mode=view&displayGroupName=Reference&limiter=&currPage=&disableHighlighting=true&displayGroups=&sortBy=&search_within_results=&p=SCIC&action=e&catId=GALE%7C00000000MUO2&activityType=&scanId=&documentId=GALE%7CCV2644030387&source=Bookmark&u=amhe95753rpa&jsid=507672013284bef42bedc548edeedc26>.


Brain Cancer. Rush. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Dec. 2015. <https://www.rush.edu/sites/default/files/brain-cancer-og.jpg>.


“Brain Cancer Causes.” Digital Trends. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Dec. 2015. <http://s3.amazonaws.com/digitaltrends-uploads-prod/2015/04/Can-cell-phones-cause-brain-cancer-We-asked-the-experts.jpg>.


“Brain Cancer Treatment.” WebMD. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2015. <http://www.webmd.com/cancer/brain-cancer/brain-cancer-treatment>.


“Brain Tumor: Diagnosis.” Cancer.Net. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Dec. 2015. <http://www.cancer.net/cancer-types/brain-tumor/diagnosis>.


“Brain Tumor Types.” PLGA Foundation. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Dec. 2015. <http://akidsbraintumorcure.org/childhood-brain-tumors/brain-tumor-types/>.


“Brain Tumour Risks and Causes.” Cancer Research UK. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2015. <http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-cancer/type/brain-tumour/about/brain-tumour-risks-and-causes>.


“Cancer Cells.” Cancer Staging. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Dec. 2015. <https://cancerstaging.org/references-tools/PublishingImages/CancerCells.jpg>.


“Definition of Brain Cancer.” MedicineNet.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Dec. 2015. <http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=10026>.


How Are Primary Brain Tumors Graded and Treated. Cancer Treatment Centers of Amercia. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Dec. 2015. <http://www.cancercenter.com/brain-cancer/>.


Tumor Close-up. Huffington Post. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Dec. 2015. <http://i.huffpost.com/gen/1512054/images/o-BRAIN-TUMOR-facebook.jpg>.


“Tumor Grades and Types Everyone Should Know About.” Cancer Facts Central. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Dec. 2015. <http://cancerfactscentral.org/693/>


DeWitt, Carson, C.D., Rosalyn, and Melinda Grander Oberleitner, M.G.O. “Brain Tumor.” The Gale of Encyclopedia of Medicine. N.p.: Gale, 2015. N. pag. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 16 Dec. 2015. <http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/scic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?failOverType=&query=&prodId=SCIC&windowstate=normal&contentModules=&display-query=&mode=view&displayGroupName=Reference&limiter=&currPage=&disableHighlighting=false&displayGroups=&sortBy=&search_within_results=&p=SCIC&action=e&catId=&activityType=&scanId=&documentId=GALE%7CIPXHAE072507223&source=Bookmark&u=amhe95753rpa&jsid=90e05244e7cc0dff69e003001ea2cdbf>.