Sociology: Final Exam Project

By: Maria Naumovich

1) Gender roles and Gender Identity

"My mother, your mother, lived across the street 1819 Blueberry Street Every time they had a fight this is what they said:

Boys are rotten, made out of cotton

Girls are handy, made out of candy

Boys go to Jupiter to get more stupider

Girls go to Mars to get more candy bars

Boys drink whiskey to get more friskey

Girls drink Pepsi, to get more sexy"

This was a children's rhyme that kids used to sing on the playground during recess, along with many other rhymes. This rhyme is a great example of how kids are taught gender roles right away and how all genders should be in constant battle with one another. Teaching little kids that one gender is superior to the other and that they can't like each other (until they are older and that is when they have to like each other) is extremely harmful. Rhymes like the one above implant gender roles in children's head and those roles stay with them for the rest of their lives.

Boys and girls do not have to hate each other and one gender isn't smarter than the other, it all depends on the person and the education that that person receives. Boys are labeled as drunks and as perverts from a young age, but it isn't shown to be a bad thing in this kind of rhyme. Little boys will laugh at the idea of drinking and dating girls, and it'll maybe even be something they look forward to, but with rhymes that are acting like it's okay to get "friskey" with girls make those boys believe that they aren't doing anything wrong when they are older and a girl wants them to stop.

For girls in this rhyme, it is acting like the main goal for a girl is to be sexy and to be attractive (to please men). This is saying that all girls want to grow up and be attractive, which is mainly true, but it is only true because from a young age girl are told that they always need to look nice. "Don't get your dress dirty", "One day you'll grow up to be a beautiful women", "Don't mess up your nails, or your clothes, or your hair". We tell girls that they are pretty or that they will be pretty as if it is the only thing that matters to a girl or that in order to be a girl you need to be pretty. We need to tell girls that they are pretty brilliant too.

Girls are taught to aspire to marriage

From a young age, little girls are told that their wedding day will be the best day of their lives (we conveniently don't tell boys the same thing). Girls begin to picture it--picture the perfect husband, the perfect dress, the perfect venue, the perfect cake, all of the guests, all of the food, and it certainly does seem like a pretty happy day. But girls aren't told about all of the other days they will have during their lives. They aren't told about their first day of school, their high school graduation, the first day of college and the graduation of college. They aren't told about their first job and how fun it will be to do what you love for the rest of your life. They aren't told about all of the sports they can play in high school or all of the best friends they will make in their life time. They typically aren't told about any of that, instead they are only told about their future husband which teaches them that the life they are living is basically only leading up to a life that revolves around their husband. Girls aren't boy-crazy, society is.
Big image

Boys don't cry

When boys are in high school and in college, maybe even before that, a lot of people will label them as heartless or insensitive. "Boys don't have feelings", "Boys don't care", etc. The only reason boys don't cry a lot (or at least don't cry in front of other people or talking about crying) is because they are told from a young age that boys don't cry. Boys can't so emotion and they can't feel things in the ways girls do because boys are supposed to be tough and strong. This not only tells you that there is something messed up in society if boys aren't allowed to cry when they are in pain, that they have to internalize their bodies natural response to negative emotion, but it also says that it's okay for girls to cry because girls aren't supposed to be strong and tough, or maybe that girls aren't tough in the first place. Boys growing up will forever have a fear of being perceived as weak or as "cry-baby". He will be told to man up and to get over it. Some people, boy or girl, just aren't that emotional, a lot of people don't like to cry. Boys can be sensitive, girls can be tough, and vice versa. Entire genders are not one thing or the other.
Big image

Boys will be boys

The phrase "boys will be boys" is used as an excuse to let boys be playful and rough and maybe even hurt the feelings of someone else simply because they are boys and that's what boys do. Boys are allowed to be loud, and mean, and aggressive, all because of the fact that they will have some adult figure in their life saying this phrase in their defense. There is no phrase like this that exists for girls. Boys get away with a lot in life simply because of their gender. If a boy is doing something that is rude, people will overlook it because it's acceptable for boys to speak their minds-- the word "rude" does not apply to boys, they are just called honest and that that "honesty" will be helpful in the long run. But when a girl says whats on her mind, she will be called some very not school appropriate names. This excuse lets boys do whatever they want and be however they want, even if however they want is not a nice person. Boys need to be held accountable for their actions just like everyone else is.

The fight against "girly"

Boys are constantly claiming the stupidity of things like One Direction, starbucks, Ugg boots, and the list goes on. Whether or not they think these things are actually stupid doesn’t matter, because girls are constantly being ridiculed for their likes and dislikes. If a girl likes it, a guy can’t like it, in fact he has to make fun of it to prove how much he doesn’t like it and how much of a man he is for not getting the urge to bob his head to a catchy boy band song. Boys are taught to be so against girls that they can’t like anything that girls like. They can’t like pop music, they can’t like romantic movies such as The Notebook or The Titanic, they can’t drink Starbucks coffee without looking like “a basic white girl”, and they can’t have any similarities with a girl and what a lot of girls are interested in. Girls are constantly considered less than boys, which is why men try so hard to go against being like a girl in any way, shape, or form-- boys just can’t be girly.

Man Up

“Man up” is a phrase that can be used for both boys and girls. Boys are told to man up when they cry, when they are talking about their problems, when they aren’t doing too great at football practice, it’s something that they are told so they hide their feelings, ignore their problems, and get their head in the game. Girls are told to man up because man are perceived as tough and as strong, so sometimes if a girl is being emotional, someone will tell her to man up, and to basically be more like a guy because guys are tough and you aren’t being tough right now. It says that guys always have to be tough and strong, even if that is emotionally and physically impossible, and it says that girls can’t be strong on their own, they have to be compared to a man in order for people to recognize their strength.

Big image

You can't play with that

Boys can’t play with barbies, or easy bake ovens. They can’t play with anything pink, and they can’t play with anything sparkly. Girls can’t play with toy guns, or with toy cars. They can’t play with anything that suggests violence, and they certainly can’t play with anything that would cause their dress to get dirty. There are boy aisles that are full of blue and black (manly colors) and then there are girl aisles full of pink and purple (girl colors). Girls grow up knowing that the blue aisle isn't made for them, and boys know that the pink aisle isn't made for them because of how they are constantly told growing up, that they can't play with that.

Big image

2) Inequalities of Race and Ethnicity

Inequalities among different races are troubles that people of color are constantly facing, especially when it comes to things such as racial profiling. Racism is still a problem all over the world because why it may not be a conscious issue, there are still extreme prejudices and stereotypes when it comes to people of color. Discrimination comes in many different forms with racism such as: denying people of color access to an advanced level of education, a well paying job, not being seen as desirable neighbors, teachers, or as an authority figure for children. Discrimination can also include killing a person of color because of extreme racism, or maybe because you just assumed they were up to no good and that you had to hurt them before they could hurt you. Hate crimes when it comes to race occur every day, and more and more cases that you see in the news are being investigated as race cases, not because racism is becoming a trend, racism has always been a trend and people are just now seeing all of that discrimination and prejudice for what it really is.
Big image

Racial Profiling

Racial profiling is when a police officer will target suspected criminals for a crime because of their religion, race, ethnicity, and national orientation. A person's race is what can cause a police officer to stop them and ticket them for a minor traffic or driving violation, or the usage of race and religion to decide who should be "randomly selected" at airports and at other places with high security. Muslims have been targeted at airports ever since 9/11 even though the religion of an awful group of people does not mean that the religion is behind the attacks. Just like Christians aren't responsible for the KKK, Muslims aren't responsible for 9/11 and other terrorists attacks and terrorist groups such as ISIS. This makes a lot of people question the legitimacy of law enforcement if they are only going to target people solely because of their race.

Wage gap among races

The wage gap between women and men is even greater when the women is a person of color.

Asian American women made 90% of a white man's earnings

Hispanic and Latina women mode 54% of a white man's earnings

American India women made 59% and so did Alaska Native women

Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders women made 64% of a white man's earnings

African American women were paid 64% of a white man's earnings.

Big image

Women of color prejudice in workforce

While it is true that there is a gender wage gap, the wage gap is even greater for women of color, as the table above shows. There is also a lot of discrimination in the workforce that women of color face. If a black women, for example, is speaking her mind on a subject that she is passionate about, or is she gets in a civil debate with someone, she will be labeled as aggressive and hostile, while a white man would just be called honest and straight-forward. Black women have also reported that they feel like they have to prove that they earned the job that they have, especially since a lot of people will assume that a black women mainly got the job because the company/business/organization/etc., needed a more diverse staff. A problem that women in general face but specifically women of color, is getting promotions and moving up the work ladder because men are always considered superior compared to women, and white women are consider superior compared to women of color. There is a lot of discrimination in the work place when it comes to women of color and they have to deal with constant discrimination and negative stereotyping, even if her co-workers don't realize what they are doing.
Big image

Racial Stereotypes

List of stereotypes that pertain to a person's race:

  • All Asians are good at math
  • Hispanics are unable to speak English well
  • All Hispanics are immigrants
  • All black people live in the ghettos
  • Black people are labeled as members of gangs
  • Black people are labeled as criminals
  • Black people are labeled as thugs
  • Arabs are all terrorists
  • A person wearing a hijab is a terrorist
Plus the way we portray each race is extremely harmful. We have black face, yellow face, brown face, red face, Arab face, and Jew face. These looks combine all of the negative stereotypes of each race and make it out to be a joke, when in reality it is harming a lot of people and it is part of the reason why racism is still such a big deal--not a lot of people are taking it seriously and many are just making offensive jokes out of race.

Internalized Discrimination

Defined as "unfair practices that grow out of common behaviors and attitudes and that are a part of the structure of a society". Internalized racism includes not liking a physical feature of a person of color, simply because it has been drilled into your brain from a young age that certain aspects and features of people of color are ugly.

Examples of internalized racism:

  • Asian Americans getting eyelid surgery
  • People of color not ordering a food they are stereotyped for liking (Asian's and sushi is an example)
  • Referring to a person as your first black/Asian/Indian/etc., friend/girlfriend/boyfriend/etc.
  • Trying to not act like a criminal just because of your race (example of this would be a black person not wanting to wear baggy clothes or put the hood in their sweatshirt up)
  • Skin bleaching

Luckily, movements like the 'black is beautiful' cultural movement are fighting against internalized racism and the typical beauty standards that go against black people and other people of color

Big image

#BlackLivesMatter Movement

This movement, that started after Trayvon Martin's death, is popularly seen on twitter and it is a movement that is dedicated to calling people to action when it comes to racism and the injustices that black people face. The movement talks about the way that black lives lose a lot of their rights as humans simply because of their race. It is called this because even though all lives do matter in the world, the conversation in the movement is specifically focusing on the black lives and the injustices that all black people face. The movement does not claim that white people don't face any injustices or that they don't have any problems, it is simply stating that white people don't face any discrimination when it comes to their race, white people actually have privilege because of their race.

The movement points out injustices when it comes to law enforcement and the way that police officers treat black people. If unnecessary aggression towards a black person is displayed by a police officer and if that same aggression wouldn't be applied towards a white person, the movement will call that out and make sure that it does not go unnoticed by the media.

3) Culture

Culture is defined as knowledge, values, customs, and physical objects that are shared by the members of a society. Culture talks about our likes and dislikes, our morals and ethics, it talks about what we believe in and don't believe in, and what are actions are based off of our beliefs, morals, and likes and dislikes. Culture can be defined as the blueprint that people in a society use to guide relationships. A society is a group of people who life in a defined territory and participate in common culture, and it is greatly connected to culture. Culture includes values, customs, language, physical objects, and knowledge and all of these things are what define a society and the people living in the society.
Big image


The systematic study of how biology influences human behavior. Natural selection is applied to social behavior and states that behaviors that help people are biologically passed over time. However, this study is criticized because sociobiology could be used to label a race as more superior to another race. Or label a gender as more superior than another gender. The relationships between heredity and behavior are complex things and many scientists are looking into if natural selection is related to the culture we have created, or if it goes far beyond anything that genes could accomplish or create in our society.

Symbols and Language

Symbols mean many different things in different cultures. For example, the confederate flag is a symbol of oppression for black Americans, whilst the confederate flag is a symbol of pride to white southerners. Another example of a symbol is a school mascot, such as a rocket or a tiger.

Examples of symbols and greetings around the world:

In places such as Europe and Latin America, kisses are used as a greeting to people, but in America, a common way to great your friends is with a hug

A thumbs up in America means good job, but the thumbs up in the middle east is America's equivalent to the middle finger

In the United Kingdom, a peace sign is seen as an insult, while in places like America, the peace sign represents a sign of peace

With a common language, people are able to express themselves with others and share ideas, values, beliefs, knowledge, and many other things through the power of words. Another interesting thing about language is that you are able to see what is important to a culture based off of how many words they have for a certain thing. Like we have many words to describe time and how much time we have and what we spend our time on. We also use many words and phrases to describe feelings, especially love.

When we are exposed to a new language and to a new culture, our reality often changes and we see the world through a new lens.

Norms and Values

Norms are the rules that define behavior. Norms are things that you have to learn, and once you learn them, you are expected to display the norms in daily life. Norms involve clapping after someone gives a speech, waiting in line for your food in the cafeteria, following the laws, and shaking the hands of the other team members after a game. Norms change over time because of invention, discovery, and diffusion.

Norms that are extremely important and that need to be followed by all members of society are known as mores. The most important more is known as taboo, and if you break this more or norm, it calls for punishment because of how severe it was for you to follow the taboo. The only taboo that is present in all societies is incest.

Big image

Culture: How it's different and how it's similar

Diversity in culture exists in every society. This diversity is promoted through immigration, globalism, communication, as well as travel. Pop and folk culture are also applied to diversity, as folk culture is practiced by traditionalists, and pop culture are things that are widespread amongst a society.

Subcultures and countercultures also affect similarities and differences. A subculture is a part of the larger society, but differs from the culture in a small way. For example, if a foreigner is affected by American culture a lot about their life could change, but a subculture would be keeping the diet and language of their original culture.

A counterculture is a subculture, but it tries to go against the main culture. An example of this would be a person being a goth or a punk during the hippie movement. People were promoting violence during a time of peaceful movement to against the peace and go against the dominant society, which is why it would be considered a counterculture.

We also judge others in terms of our culture and the rules we have in our culture, which is known as ethnocentrism. An example of this is some religious leaders believing that aspects of religion should be influenced into laws, such as having laws that are based off of the bible's beliefs. While ethnocentrism does offer a sense of belonging amongst a group of people, it also separates people based off of their beliefs and a lot of people will be judged if they don't have the same opinions as another person because of ethnocentrism.

Culture universals are traits that exist in every culture. Example of these are:

  • Sports
  • Division of labor
  • Language
  • Cooking
  • Family structure
  • Education
  • Marriage
  • Medicine
  • Class differences
  • Humor
  • Housing
While the language of two cultures may be different, all cultures have a language, which is why it is considered a universal among all cultures.

Big image

4) Socialization

Socialization is the cultural process of learning to participate in group life. Through socialization, people are able to fit in with all sorts of different groups that exist within a society. Many things can not be accomplished without socialization, such as talking, beliefs and behavior, language, and many other things. Without socialization, many people are unable to form bonds with other people, which isolates people and causes a lot of outcomes in the future from lack of socialization.
Big image

Affects of no socialization

The signs that are associated with being a human being are all created by social contact with people your whole life, especially in the beginning of your life. It may be impossible to fully learn a language after puberty if you don't learn it as a kid. This also applies to a lot of other basic things such as eating and walking. We learn all of these things as a child, but when a child doesn't learn these things, it will take a long time to teach them and it's going to be a lot harder to teach an 8 year old how to walk than it would be to teach a 2 year old how to walk.

Aspects of socialization

Family Socialization: First exposure to culture, to the world, and to others is through family socialization. In the family socialization aspect, a child learns to think, to speak, develop relationships, gain a self image, etc.

Religion Socialization: Children are able to learn values, morals, and beliefs by attending church. Religion alter's peoples views on sexuality, gender roles, how a child should be taken care of, etc. Church is also a place to just talk to people about faith, so people are able to healthily socialize with others at church and through religion.

School Socialization: Children are taught to rely less on their parents as they attend and spend time at school. There is hidden curriculum taught in schools that teaches children how to display disciple, cooperation, order, as well as conformity. All of those aspects are things that the children will need to display in adulthood and in their future job, which is why they are taught it at a young age. Children at school are praised for getting the right answer and for behaving the right way and this is because if you praise a child for something, they will continue to do it, so the child being praised will continue to behave properly at school if they are praised for it.

Peer Socialization: A peer group is made up of people they are the same age as you, or are near the same age, and you all share similar interests. You can belong to multiple peer groups, such as your church peer group, your soccer team peer group, your school peer group, etc. Peer groups allow kids to further move away from their parents and from adults and now is the time in which kids learn to be different from their parents and they begin to create their own personality away from what their parents have taught them to be. This also helps children feel comfortable with people they may not know fully, and allows them to interact with people outside of their family, as well as interact with larger groups of people.

Mass Media Socialization: Includes movies, books, radio, television, internet, etc. Way of spreading something to the general population through communication. Children will want to follow the people they see on TV, which is why a lot of TV shows are made for kids so they can show them good role models to look up to. If there aren't good role models to look up to on TV, kids will begin to look up to all of the violence that is shown on TV and that could cause some aggressive behavior in the child from watching other people on TV display aggression.

Socialization over time

Socialization begins at birth and ends at death, but there is a life cycle that a person goes through between these two points.

Childhood: People in need of guidance, protection, and schooling and are very dependent on others

Adolescence: Between childhood and adulthood (teenager). Adolescents face decision making and they are expected to show responsibility and become more independent. Stage in which a person tries to determine who they are, but this can be difficult as they are still a minor, yet they are still close to becoming an adult. Learn cause and effect, how to evaluate, how to listen to adults, and how they compare to other people.

Transitional Adulthood: Young people are living away from their families, but they still use their parents money and rely on them to fund them throughout this phase of life as they are in the 18-29 age group. These adults need their parents to get them through college so they can get a job and stop relying on their money. These adults are expected to get a job, get married, and have kids.

Middle Years: Age 30-49 and a family and job are achieved during this time. Women are expected to have kids or start having kids in this age group before they become too old. This is usually the peak for a lot of people when it comes to their jobs.

Old Age: Being old is what a lot of people become when they are in their 70's. This is when people go through a lot of self evolution and look back on there lives to see if they have any regrets and if they did everything that they wanted to do in life.

Desocialization and Resocialization

Desocialization, is the process in which people give up norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors, and this is typically done in a total institution, which is a place where people are separated from society and taught new things (boot camp, prison, etc.) People are not allowed to be presented as unique or different, and they are given similar traits to make them all similar and the same to everyone else, such as having a shaved head in the military or all of the prisoners wearing an orange jumpsuit.

After desocialization, resocialization can occur, and this is the process in which people begin to believe in new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors. People are awarded when they begin to adopt the new values and they are punished when they try and go against them.

Anticipatory socialization is when a person prepares for new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors, however, unlike desocialization and resocialization, these new norms are being created because the person wants the change and it isn't being forced on them. This type of socialization could occur between stages in the life cycle, especially when a person has a new peer group that all share the same values--a person may change their values to fit in with this new peer group.

Big image

5) Social Structure

Social structure is defined as the pattern of social relationships within a group. Social structure helps people interact with one another and how we fit into groups and how we fit in with other people. We learn social structure as we grow up and we pick up on all of the structure in our world and where we fit into the structure.

Social Status

A status is defined as a position a person occupies within a social structure, and everyone has a status in life and within a social structure. Our status helps define as and how we relate to other people in the social structure.

The two kinds of status are ascribed and achieved. An ascribed status is a position in a social structure that is neither earned nor chosen to be assigned to a person. An example of this is that if a baby is born as a girl, she immediately becomes a daughter. An achieved status is a position that a person earns or chooses. An example could include wanting to become a parent and take on the status of a mother or of a father.

Ascribed statuses are based on age, gender, ethnicity, and race. Achieved statuses are based on accomplishments and choices.

Big image
A status set, on the other hand are all the statuses a person has at a time. For example, a person can be a female, a mother, and a doctor. These are all of the person's statuses and they are all occurring at the same time. One of these statuses could be a master status, which is a position that strongly influences most other aspects of a person's life. These master lives can either be achieved or ascribed, and in most cases the master status is whatever the person has as their occupation since your occupation influences almost all aspects of your life if not all of them.

Master statuses can still be ascribed however, as they affect the likelihood of something happening. For example, an ascribed status for a person is that they are female, and that lowers the likelihood of achieving certain statuses, like becoming President of the United States.


A role is an expected behavior associated with a particular status. The role of teacher, for example, is to teach and educate their students, and the role of a student is to learn. The role of a doctor, is to treat their patients and diagnose illnesses, as well as prescribe medication for those illnesses. Roles describe behavior and behaviors are based on the rights and obligations that are attached the statuses. Rights are defined as the behavior that individuals expect from others, while obligations are behaviors that individuals are expected to perform towards others. For example, students have a right to expect a teacher to teach them, so teachers have an obligation to teach a lesson every day and do so in a way that will help the students learn and retain the information they are being taught.

Role perfromance

Role performance is defined as the behavior exhibited by people as they carry out a role. Typically role performance does involve social interaction, and social interaction is any of the processes by which people influence one another as they interrelate. Examples of social interaction include talking to your friends, giving your order to the waiter, and any situation that includes an interaction between two or more people.

There, is however role conflict. Role conflict is when the role expectations for a role in one status clash with the expectations or another status. An example of this could be with a parent, who has a difficult time doing a full time job, as well as caring for a child or multiple children.

Role strain is when a person has trouble meeting the many roles connected with a single status. Role strain applies to school and how students are expected to get straight A's, be in multiple clubs, have a job, going to college fairs, joining a sport, and doing everything they can so they can impress and please colleges when the time comes to apply.

How the topics connect together

All of the topics relate to the oppressive systems and structure that we have in our world. Gender inequalities and Racial Inequalities are two of the main oppressive structures, and culture, social structure, and socialization all have an affect on these two structures. Social structure and people's ascribed roles are part of the reason why we have a lot of inequalities when it comes to gender and race, and why society limits people based off of their gender and based off of their race. Our culture takes a lot of ideas that include women are unequal to men, and blacks are unequal to white people, as well as the ideas of feminism and the black lives matter movement and turn them into pop culture. Socialization is how we can communicate with people about these oppressive topics and how we spread the word, whether it be positive or negative. So in the end, social structure defines that the ascribed statuses of female being unequal to men and people of color being unequal to white people, and culture talks about these topics through socialization in a negative or positive way.

How the topics relate to real life

The gender roles and inequalities topic greatly relates to the feminist movement, that is currently a huge movement all over the world. Many celebrities, such as Beyoncé and Emma Watson are proclaiming their feminism for the world to see and they are showing everyone that feminism is not a dirty word, nor is it a man-hating movement. Beyoncé showed the world what feminism really was when she released the song, Flawless. In the song, Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, said "Feminist: A person who believes in the social, political, and economic equality of the sexes."

This definition of the word feminism showed the world that feminism is just the belief that women and men are equal to one another, which is why a lot more people all over the world have been proud to claim the title and show the world what it really means to be a feminist. Feminism goes against gender roles and the roles that society has created for women, as well as for men. No one should be treated differently because of what they were born as, and that is what this movement is all about. As more people declare their title as a feminist, such as Adele and Lorde, more people become accepting of the concept, and as more people accept it, the oppressive walls that have been built surrounding women and men that limit them to blue and pink and sports and shopping, will be brought down and then there will be true equality like the equality Adichie was talking about in the song.

Social structure is something that could relate to the current presidential election. The role of a president is to lead a country, and to do what is best for the country. The presidential candidates all have achieved and ascribed status. Hillary Clinton has a very negative ascribed status as a female and many people see her status as a female a reason why she is incapable of becoming a president. This ascribed status for her, as well as for many other women, limits women and limits the perspective of a women. A lot of people don't see Hilary Clinton to be a fit president, not because of her policies, not because of her beliefs, not because of what she wants to do with America, many people see her as unfit simply because she is a women and women are incapable of making rational decisions, so how can they be expected to run a country. Whether people actually agree with her and her policies, she is still a candidate that should be taken just as seriously as all of her other fellow candidates that happen to be men. She deserves to be respected like the male candidates are, and if some people believe that they have a right to judge others, they should judge her policies on whether or not they are what's good for America, not judge her on her gender.

How the topics apply to my life

The gender roles and inequality topic greatly affects my life as I am affected by gender roles and what is expected of women every day. I am affected by culture and all of the norms I have learned over time, as well as social structure and how that was something to be learned so i can follow culture and fit in with society. Every day I am affected by socialization as I am constantly being social, whether it be with classmates, family members, and friends. Inequalities of race apply to my life in the sense that I have friends that are people of color that are affected by these inequalities. I am a white person, so I'm not affected by racism or racial discrimination, but I know people who are and that is how it connects back to my life.