By: Carlos Lopez & Dalin lee

Orbital Sanders

Orbital sanders revolve a sanding pad around a central point. As the disk revolves, the orientation of the sanding pad remains the same in relation to the tool.

Vibratory Sanders

Vibratory sanders, sometimes known as finish sanders, oscillate quickly in short, contained movements similar to orbital sanders. The tool's motion allows smoother finishes for more controlled application.

Random Orbit Sanders

The motion produced by a random orbit sander is equivalent to an orbital sander moving in a tight, elliptical path. This double ellipse motion can be more aggressive than a standard.

Design Sanders

A belt sander feeds a continuous loop of sandpaper over two rollers at high speeds. This achieves aggressive material removal for preparation and finishing of large surfaces.

Benchtop Sanders

A benchtop or freestanding sander allows the user to control the movement of the workpiece instead of manipulating the sander. This may be a more convenient method of removing unwanted material from smaller workpieces.

Combination Sanders

Units with two or more types of sanders, like the unit shown in the viewer, are known as combination sanders. These stationary tools offer the user multiple sanding choices from one machine; conserving bench or floor space.

Backings (Sand Paper)

Sandpaper is a generic term for any abrasive material adhered to a flexible backing.

Although the most common backing is a paper derived sheet, backings can be a composite of multiple types of paper, plastic, cloth, or metallic materials.

Styles Of Sand Paper

The shape and size of any sandpaper is dictated by the intended applicator.

Common types of pads, disks, rolls, tubes, and sheets are available at most retailers. Specific sizes and shapes for specialty sanders are less readily found.


Common abrasive materials used as grit on sandpaper

-Silicon carbide/nitride
-Aluminium/alumina oxide
-Zirconium/zirconia oxide
-Flint quartz

Grit Rating

Each manufacturer marks their sandpaper products or product packaging with a grit rating ranging from 4 to 2000. The most common grit ratings range from 36 to 220.

Using a Sander

1. Disconnect the tool from the power source.

2. Adjust or remove any safety guards or tables that block access to either belt drum.

3. Loosen the tension lever.

4. Position the new belt so that the indication arrow printed on the inside of the belt points towards the drive drum at the top of the rotation.
5. Slide the belt over the two drums and sanding table, under the backstop. Center the belt on both drums.

6. Tighten the tension lever.

7. Adjust the tracking knob so that both ends of the belt appear parallel.

8. Replace any safety guards previously removed.
9. Reconnect the tool to the power source. Cycle the power on then off.

10. If the belt did not remain centered, adjust the tracking belt accordingly. Cycle the power again.

11. If the belt remained centered, cycle the power again.

12. Once the belt remains centered, disconnect from power source before replacing any tables previously removed.

Safety (Caution)

- Always wear safety glasses when operating a sander.
- Over or under tensioning belt sanders may cause damage or breakage during use.
- Workpieces may become hot during the sanding process. Take precautions to avoid contact burns.
- Avoid contact with moving sandpaper at all times.
- Hold all hand-held sanders with both hands to prevent the tool from propelling itself across the workpiece.
- Insure that all workpieces are secured before sanding them with a hand-held sander. Workpieces may become projectiles.

Question 1

What Is The Proper Sander For Smoothing Shallow Imperfection?

A. Belt Sander

B. Vibratory Sander

C. Orbital Sander

Question 2

What is the proper sander for Leveling Hard Surfaces?

A. Belt Sander

B. Vibratory Sander

C. Orbital Sander

Question 3

What is the proper sander for Light Detail Sanding?

A. Belt Sander

B. Vibratory Sander

C. Orbital Sander

Question 4

Which of the following hand-held sander types is the most aggressive?

A. Random Orbit Sander

B. Orbital Sander

C. Belt Sander

D. Vibratory