Mid-Year Review

Chemistry,Earth History,Infectious Disease's

Chemistry-8.P.1-Understand the properties of matter and changes that occur when matter interacts in an open and closed container

-Physical Properties: A characteristic that you can observe without changing the composition of the substance.

-Odor ,Mass,Density,State ,ect.

-Chemical Properties:A characteristic that you can only observe by changing the identity of the substance.

-Flammability. Reactivity, Oxidation, Toxicity

-Physical Change:Any change that does not involve a change in the substance's chemical identity.

- Painting something

-Chemical Change:Any change in matter that results in the formation of a new chemical substance.

-Baking

-Elements:Can not be separated any further

-Compound:Can be only separated chemically not physical

-Mixture:2 or more pure substances that are held together physically not chemically.

-Heterogeneous:You can see the individual parts and separated easily.

-Oil and water,Sand,salad

-Homogeneous:Cant see individual parts,not separated easily.

-Periodic Table:A list of all the known elements.

-Horizontal Rows-They are called periods.

-Vertical Rows- They are called groups

-The 2 main groups the table is divided by is metals and non-metals.

-Metals:The farther to the left the more metallic properties.

- Non-metals:The farther to the right the less metallic properties.

-Metalloids(Transition Metals): Is a small group that touches the zigzag.

-Atomic Mass: Protons and Neutrons

-Atomic Number- Is the same as the number of electrons and protons

- Protons and Electrons: Is the same number as the atomic number

-Neutrons:Take the atomic mass and subtract the number of protons.

-Law of Conservation of mass: Matter cannot be created nor destroyed;it can only be transferred from state to state.

Earth History-8.E.2-Understand the history of earth and its life forms based on evidence of change records and land forms

-Law of Superposition of Mass:the young rocks are above the old rocks are in the bottom if not messed with.

-Index Fossils:Fossils with widely distributed organisms that only lived one short period of time.

-Ice Cores: Block of ice that tell the climate of that snowfall.

-Geologic Time Scale:A system with different eras of the earth.

-Precambrian,Paleozoic,Mesozoic,Cenozoic

-Relative and absolute dating:Absolute dating is knowing the specific time.Relative is just knowing which one is older or younger.

-Half-Life:Time it takes for half of the isotopes to decay.

-Radioactive Decay:A form of finding the age of a fossil or rock.

Infectious Disease's

-Microorganisms:A microscopic,uni-cellular

-Parasites:Living thing,and moves by its own organism to the next.

-Fungi:Living thing,and transmits through sweat of other body fluids.

-Bacteria:A living thing,and transmits through air and surfaces.

-Virus:A non-living thing that can transmits through air or surfaces.

-Epidemic:An outbreak in a small community o one continent.

-Pandemic:An outbreak through out many continents in the world.

-Prevention and treatment:Viruses can only be prevented with a vaccine.Antibiotics only treat bacteria.

-Biotechnology:The use of living cells,bacteria,ect.,to make useful products.

-There are many jobs involved in this field,like for example agricultural and food science technician,animal technician ect..

-Here in NC its especially useful because one of our main things is agricultural so this can help our economy.

-Vocab:

-Genetic Engineering:The science of making changes to the genes of a plant or animal to produce desired result.

-GMO: An organism of microorganism whose genetic material has been altered,by means of genetic engineering.

-Cloning:To make copy or imitation of.

-DNA:Is the molecule that contains genetic code of organism.

Bio-Remidation: Use microorganism of other forms of life to consume and break down environmental pollutants in order to clean.