Ulcerative Colitis

By: Sascha Liberatore

What is Ulcerative Colitis?

Ulcerative Colitis is a chronic disease that causes inflammation, swelling, and sores (called ulcers) on the lining of the large intestine (also known as the colon). Ulcerative Colitis is also known as Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Usually develops over a period of time, rather than all at once.

Symptoms of Ulcerative Colitis

Symptoms are:

  • Cramping in the abdomen

  • Blood and pus in the stool

  • Severe or very slight Diarrhea

  • Fever

  • Weight loss

  • In children, growth may slow

  • Nausea or loss of appetite

  • Rectal pain

  • Vomiting
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"Google Image Result for Http://www.celebritydiagnosis.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/ulcerative-colitis.jpg." Google Image Result for Http://www.celebritydiagnosis.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/ulcerative-colitis.jpg. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Dec. 2015.

Complications from Ulcerative Colitis

  • Severe bleeding
  • A hole in the colon
  • Severe dehydration
  • Liver disease (that rarely happens)
  • Bone loss
  • Inflammation of your skin, joints and eyes, and sores in the lining of your mouth
  • An increased risk of colon cancer
  • A rapidly swelling colon (toxic megacolon)
  • Increased risk of blood clots in veins and arteries

How are Carriers Detected?

Tests and exams

Your Doctor could do pre tests if they feel like you may have colitis or traces of it. They can first do laboratory tests of blood and fecal matter. Stool specimens are tested to get rid of the possibility of bacterial, viral, or parasitic causes of diarrhea. The blood tests checks for signs of infection and anemia, which then could tell if there is bleeding in the colon or rectum.

Endoscopy and Biopsy

You may have to get an endoscopy, which is medical instruments to go inside of your colon, inserted through the anus to see the inside of the colon with a lighted camera. You may have to get a sigmoidoscopy or a total colonoscopy.

  • "Sigmoidoscopy involves the insertion of a flexible instrument into the rectum and lower colon that allows the doctor to visualize the extent and degree of inflammation in these areas.
  • Total colonoscopy is a similar exam, but it visualizes the entire colon."

Your doctor will probably want a sample of the affected tissue, called a biopsy. Biopsied tissues are tested to see for traces of the disease or if you may have the disease.

These procedures seem a little personal and uncomfortable, techniques and new technology has made the procedure painless and can be done in an outpatient visit.

Chromoendosopy

You could also end up have to get a colonoscopy to look for any polyps or pre-cancerous changes in the setting of colitis. "Chromoendoscopy is a technique of spraying a blue liquid dye during the colonoscopy in order to increase the ability of the endoscopist specialist to detect slight changes in the lining of your intestine. The technique may identify early or flat polyps which can be biopsied or removed. It is common to have blue bowel movements for a short time following this procedure."


There is really no way to tell if your carrier without already having a trace of IBD. If you do have Colitis then mostly likely your kids will have IBD either Crohns or Colitis.

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"Google Image Result for Http://www.turmericforhealth.com/sites/default/files/ulcerative%2520colitis.jpg." Google Image Result for Http://www.turmericforhealth.com/sites/default/files/ulcerative%2520colitis.jpg. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Dec. 2015.

Treatment

Medication: Anti-inflammatory

  • Aminosalicylates: Digestive distress, headache

  • Corticosteroids: Puffy face, excessive facial hair, night sweats, insomnia, hyperactivity

Medication: Immune system suppressors

  • Azathioprine and Mercaptopurine: Liver, pancreas, chance of lymphoma cancer and skin cancer

  • Cyclosporine: Kidney and liver damage, seizures,fatal infections, risk for cancer

  • Infliximab, Adalimumab, Golimumab: Tuberculosis, chance of lymphoma cancer and skin cancer

  • Vedolizumab: Infection, risk for cancer
Other medications
    • Antibiotics for fevers

    • Anti-diarrheal meds for severe diarrhea: risk of toxic megacolon

    • Pain relievers for mild pain

    • Iron supplements for iron deficiency anemia

    Surgery

    • Removing part of your colon or all of it: Waste bag, possibly a permanent opening in your abdomen

    Cancer surveillance

    • Getting screenings for colon cancer

Exact name?

IL23R

Interleukin 23 Receptor

Where is the gene located?

The IL23R gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 1.
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"Google Image Result for Http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/dynamicImages/chromomap/IL23R.jpeg." Google Image Result for Http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/dynamicImages/chromomap/IL23R.jpeg. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Dec. 2015.

Mutation

Ulceative Colitits is autosomal recessive.
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"Google Image Result for Http://www.curecrohnscolitis.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/ulcerative-colitis-cure.png." Google Image Result for Http://www.curecrohnscolitis.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/ulcerative-colitis-cure.png. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Dec. 2015.

Is there a cure?

Ulcerative Colitis is a relapsing disease. Which means that the person will suffer from the symptoms for a period of time. Then have periods without the symptoms. Sadly, there is no known cure for Ulcerative Colitis.

Current Research

The most recent study conducted in 2013 (University of California, San Diego) that people use now for the disease is the drug called vedolizumab. Vedolizumab prevents white blood cells from gathering in the area of inflammation. Leading to fewer infections.

Intresting facts about ulcerative colitis

Ulcerative Colitis can also be caused by Environmental Factors- Certain medications, diet, where you live, age.

Smoking can be a risk for Ulcerative Colitis .

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"Google Image Result for Http://www.hemorrhoidinformationcenter.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/Colitis-2-.jpg." Google Image Result for Http://www.hemorrhoidinformationcenter.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/Colitis-2-.jpg. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Dec. 2015.

Citations

"Ulcerative Colitis." : Practice Essentials, Background, Anatomy. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Dec. 2015.

"Crohn's & Colitis." CCFA: Colitis Diagnosis. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Dec. 2015.

"Ulcerative Colitis." Complications. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Dec. 2015.

"New Genetic Markers for Ulcerative Colitis Identified, Researchers Report in Nature Genetics." EurekAlert! N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Dec. 2015.

"Newly Described Disease Entity: NOD2-associated Autoinflammatory Disease - Consult QD." Consult QD. N.p., 25 Sept. 2014. Web. 09 Dec. 2015.

"IRGM Gene." Genetics Home Reference. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Dec. 2015.

"What Is the Association between ATG16L1 and Inflammatory Bowel Disease?" What Is the Association between ATG16L1 and Inflammatory Bowel Disease? N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Dec. 2015.