Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)

Ty Gaskins, Spencer Daniel

Causes

•There's no known clear cause of oppositional defiant disorder. Contributing causes may be a combination of inherited and environmental factors, including:

Genetics — a child's natural disposition or temperament and possibly neurobiological differences in the way nerves and the brain function

Environment — problems with parenting that may involve a lack of supervision, inconsistent or harsh discipline, or abuse or neglect.

Signs

•Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

•Depression

•Anxiety

•Conduct disorder

•Learning and communication disorders

Behavioral: aggression, antisocial behavior, impulsivity, irritability, screaming, or self-harm

Mood: anger or anxiety

Also common: depression or problem paying attention

Symptoms

•Angry and irritable mood:

•Often loses temper

•Is often touchy or easily annoyed by others

•Is often angry and resentful

•Argumentative and defiant behavior:

•Often argues with adults or people in authority

•Often actively defies or refuses to comply with adults' requests or rules

•Often deliberately annoys people

•Often blames others for his or her mistakes or misbehavior

•Vindictiveness:

•Is often spiteful or vindictive

•Has shown spiteful or vindictive behavior at least twice in the past six months

Treatment

•Treating oppositional defiant disorder generally involves several types of psychotherapy and training for your child — as well as for parents. Treatment often lasts several months or longer.

•Medications alone generally aren't used for ODD unless another disorder co-exists. If your child has co-existing conditions, particularly ADHD, medications may help significantly improve symptoms.

Complications

•ODD may lead to problems such as:

•Poor school and work performance

•Antisocial behavior

•Impulse control problems

•Substance use disorder

•Suicide