Watershed And Ocean Ecosystems

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Off Shore drilling

When ever oil is recovered from the ocean floor,other chemicals and toxic susbstances come up too--things like mecury,lead and arsenic that are often released back into the ocean.Oil is toxic to the plants and microscopic animals that form the basis of the marine food chain.Construction noise from new facilities and pipe lines also likely to interfere with foraging and communication behavior of birds and mammals.

Marine santuary

U.S. National Marine Sanctuary is a federally designated area within United States waters that protects areas of the marine environment with special conservation, recreational, ecological, historical, cultural, archeological, scientific, educational, or aesthetic qualities. The National Marine Sanctuary System consists of 14 marine protected areas that encompass more than 150,000 square miles.Sanctuaries protect thriving ecosystems like coral reefs and kelp forests, along with important breeding and feeding areas for marine life like whales, seabirds, sharks, and sea turtles. Within sanctuary boundaries lie countless links to our heritage, from historic shipwrecks to traditional Native American fishing grounds.

Over fishing

World-wide over fishing is one of the biggest threats to the health of seas and their inhabitants.As fish are lost they are replaced smaller,faster-growing species like plankton,feeding fish,and shellfish,leading to potentially irreversible shifts in the entire ocean ecosystems.Many scientists say most fish populations could be restored with aggressive fisheries management better enforcement of laws governing catches,increased use of aquaculture.

Dead zones

Dead zones are hypoxic areas in the world's oceans and large lakes,caused by excessive nutrient pollution from human activities coupled with other factors that deplete the oxygen required to support most marine life.In the 1970s oceanographers began noting increased instances of dead zones.A 2008 study counted 202 dead zones world wide.Increase in input of nitrogen and phosphorus generally causes cyanobacteria to bloom and this causes dead zones.cyanobacteria is not good for zooplankton.use of chemical fertilizers is considered the major cause of dead zones around the world.

Effects of littering

Litter is extremely hazardous.Derbis falling from vehicles is an increasing cause of automible accidents.Litter also carries sustainable cost to the economy.Many groups exists with the aim of raising awareness and run campaighns including clean up events.At least 38 states have high profile government-recongrized slogan campaighns.

Specific legislation exists in the following countries:

  • United States - punishable with a more than $500 fine, community service, or both, as set out by state statutes and city ordinances. All 50 states have anti-litter laws.[ Most highways and national parks are punishable with $1,000 fine or 1 year in prison when they had serious damages. In some areas, the penalties for highway littering can be up to $10,000.