A vaccine preventable disease
Identification and Definition
History of Tuberculosis
Originally there was a surgical treatment for tuberculosis that was common and found to prolong life. It involved draining pleural effusion from around the lungs. In 1921 the BCG vaccine was introduced thanks to Albert Calmette and Camille Guerin.
Signs and Symptoms of Tuberculosis
- Cough that lasts 3+ weeks
- Pain in your chest
- Coughing up blood
While other symptoms include
- Weakness or fatigue
- Weight Loss
- Loss of appetite
- Night sweats
People with latent TB infections do not feel sick, don't show any symptoms, and cannot spread TB to others.
Transmission of Tuberculosis
Mycobacterium bovis is the bacterium responsible for tuberculosis in cattle but it can also infect humans and other mammals. Mycobacterium bovis is usually transmitted to human through infected milk but it is rare due to pasteurisation. In a areas where pasteurisation is not routine, Mycobacterium bovis is a more common cause of tuberculosis in humans.
Complications of Tuberculosis
- Spinal pain - back pain and stiffness
- Joint damage - arthritis usually in the hips and knees
- Meningitis - can cause a lasting or intermittent headache.
- Liver or kidney problems
- Heart disorders - rare but tb can infect the tissue surrounding your heart causing inflammation and fluid collections. This is called cardiac tamponade which may be fatal
- Death - if left untreated, tuberculosis kills more than 50% of people infected