Bonds Science

By Wesley Hargrave and Matthew Bouse

Drawing Ionic Bonds

Follow your teacher’s directions to complete each ionic bond.

1- Write the symbols for each element.

2 - Use Fruit Pebbles (or other cereal/candy with more

than one color) to create the Lewis structure for each.

3 - Draw an arrow (or more if needed) to show the

transfer of electrons and move the cereal to the new location.

4 - Determine the charge for each ion and write the formula.

5 - Make sure the sum of the oxidation numbers is zero

and write the chemical formula.

6 - Have the students use a pencil or crayon to draw the

electrons as they remove the pieces of cereal.

Ionic Bonds

Ionic bonding is the complete transfer of valence electron(s) between atoms and is a type of chemical bond that generates two oppositely charged ions. It is observed because metals with few electrons in its outer-most orbital. By losing those electrons, these metals can achieve noble-gas configuration and satisfy the octet rule. Similarly, nonmetals that have close to 8 electrons in its valence shell tend to readily accept electrons to achieve its noble gas configuration.

Drawing Covalent Bonds

Follow your teacher’s directions to complete each covalent bond.

1- Write the symbols for each element.

2 - Use Fruity Pebbles (or other cereal/candy with more

than one color) to create the Lewis structure for each.

3 - Rearrange the electrons (or cereal pieces) to pair up

electrons from each atom.

4 - Draw circles to show the sharing of electrons.

5 - Draw the bond structure using symbols and lines. Use

one line for each pair of electrons that is shared.

6 - Write the chemical formula for each molecule.

7 - Have the students use a pencil or crayon to draw the

electrons as they remove the pieces of cereal.

Covalent Bonds

Covalent bonding occurs when pairs of electrons are shared by atoms. Atoms will covalently bond with other atoms in order to gain more stability, which is gained by forming a full electron shell. By sharing their outer most (valence) electrons, atoms can fill up their outer electron shell and gain stability. Nonmetals will readily form covalent bonds with other nonmetals in order to obtain stability, and can form anywhere between one to three covalent bonds with other nonmetals depending on how many valence electrons they posses. Although it is said that atoms share electrons when they form covalent bonds, they do not usually share the electrons equally.

Bonds Image Gallery

Videos about Bonds

Types of Chemical Bonds
Chemical Bonding- Ionic vs. Covalent bonds

About Metalltic Bonds

The metallic bond is a type of chemical bond that occurs between atoms of metallic elements. It gives metals their unique properties that we don't see in nonmetal substances. When two atoms share electrons, they form a covalent bond. When one atom takes an electron away from another and the resulting positive and negative ions are attracted to each other, those atoms have formed an ionic bond.

A metallic bond is pretty different from covalent and ionic bonds, but the goal is the same: to achieve a lower energy state. Instead of a bond between just two atoms, a metallic bond is a sharing of electrons between many atoms of a metal element.

Examples of Metallic Bonds

Battle of the Bonds

There are two types of atomic bonds - ionic bonds and covalent bonds. They differ in their structure and properties. Covalent bonds consist of pairs of electrons shared by two atoms, and bind the atoms in a fixed orientation. Relatively high energies are required to break them (50 - 200 kcal/mol). Whether two atoms can form a covalent bond depends upon their electronegativity i.e. the power of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons to itself. If two atoms differ considerably in their electronegativity - as sodium and chloride do - then one of the atoms will lose its electron to the other atom. This results in a positively charged ion (cation) and negatively charged ion (anion). The bond between these two ions is called an ionic bond.

Bonds in your Body

Covalent

The human body is made up almost entirely of covalent bonds, as it is 70% water (a covalent compound) and also a lot of organic carbon compounds (mostly covalent).
For atoms that make multiple bonds such as oxygen which makes two bonds, for example, two or more electrons can be shared between one or more other atoms. Hydrogen atoms are one of the few exceptions to the octet rule, which states that all atoms want 8 electrons in their valence shell to reach their most stable state. So in water, which is two hydrogens bonded to one oxygen, the two bonding sites of water are both taken up by a hydrogen. Some examples include glucose and water.

Ionic

Ionic bonds are usually found in dry forms such as salts and are found in compounds throughout the human body. Ionic compounds are generally water soluble.Ionic bonds play an important role in shaping tertiary and quaternary proteins. As a protein undergoes its folding process, certain atoms on the protein will be attracted to one another and will from ionic bonds that hold the general shape of a protein together.Much like protein shapes, ionic bonds help determine the shapes of chromosomes depending on what atoms bond to each other. There are many different ionic compounds (salts) in cells. Ions are used to maintain cell potentials and are important in cell signaling and muscle contraction. As ions move in and out of cells, they can build up positive and negative charges on different sides of those cells. Once these charges build up, they can trigger a reaction such as muscle or nerve contraction. Some examples include NaCI and calcium oxalate.