By: Sarah Ammari; Period 7
Road to Revoltion Summary
The American Revolution did not just happen, there was a series of events that led up to the point of the colonists deciding that they were done. Britain did a majority of things to the colonists like, taxation without representation. This was the slogan that made the colonists mad the most. The British government put tax after tax on the colonists, and the colonists thought doing this was unfair. They believed this because they had no one to represent them and stand up for them. The British put taxes and rules on the colonists all the time. The colonists actually believed that the British were unconstitutionally taxing them. For instance, the Tea Act made the colonists pay taxes on tea. The last straw for the colonists was the Intolerable Acts, which put a majority of taxes and laws on the colonists. Britain thought this would make them settle, but the colonists just got angrier. Therefore, the thought of an American Revolution began.
Lexington & Concord; April 19, 1775
- On this day, the British troops came into Lexington. There, 70 armed minutemen waited. John Parker yelled, "Don't fire unless fired upon."
- After this, a shot was fired from the patriots. No one knows who fired this shot. This shot was known as the, "shot heard 'round the world," because this was the beginning of the American Revolution.
- After only a few minute battle, the "Redcoats" marched to Concord. Samuel Prescott warned the people that they were coming.
- Most of the weapons had been hidden, and the ones that were not were concealed, or kept safe. This made the British very angry because there was no stockpile.
- Because they were so mad, they set fire to a few buildings in Concord. This made some people scared, and most mad. The minutemen then attacked on the British. this marked the beginning of the American Revolution.
Common Sense; (published) January 10, 1776
- "Common Sense" was a pamphlet made by Thomas Paine. It was 47 pages long and originally was published anonymously.
- In his pamphlet, he discussed how he believed that the citizens should choose their laws, and not the royal leader. This was very brave seeing that the rule of the monarchy was very big right now. He definitely couldve been in trouble.
- Soon, 500,000 copies of his article was sold to the majority of the colonies.
- He was very popular. People looked up to Paine because he was a normal person speaking his mind. This pamphlet made colonists reconsider their opinions about the king.
- He also made a case about economic freedom and the right to military self- defense. He pointed out the abuse of the government power. He was a big influence of colonists and still is today.
Declaration of Independence; July 4, 1776
- The Declaration of Independence was made at the Second Continental Congress meeting. This was made generally in response to Paine's message and to formally declare the colonies' freedom from Britain.
- The first main part was Thomas Jefferson and the other authors expresses how everyone has unalienable rights. These are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
- The second part was the longest, and expressed the complaints towards Britain from the colonists. The main ones were against the king. Jefferson accused him of putting laws on the colonists that were unfair and illegal.
- Lastly, Jefferson stated how they had the right to break free of Britain.
- On July 4, 1776, the Continental Congress approved the Declaration of Independence and the colonists were free from Britain.
Battle of Saratoga; September 19, 1777- October 7, 1777
- Before this battle, there was 2 in which the British were defeated. The British wanted to take back their winning spots.
- Their plan was to eliminate New England from the colonies. This required the perfect time to do this action. But, when the plan had to go into action, the timing was wrong.
- Along one of their routes, the militia came out of no where and attacked the British troops. The leader of this troop was forced to surrender after being surrounded.
- This was known as the Battle of Saratoga. This was in New York and was the turning point in the American Revolution.
- This battle was yet another win for America. Some thought that this event would forever be in American history.
Winter At Valley Forge; December 19, 1777- June 18, 1778
- The Winter at Valley Forge was not a battle, but a test of the strength and determination of the American troops. Thankfully, the Spanish and French had joined the American's side and were ready to help in the time of need.
- Washington took his soldiers and settled in Valley Forge. They had to battle against themselves as they had to find a way to survive the harsh winter.
- Most of the men did not have the right protection to survive. They did not have shoes, clothes, blankets, and more. Although Washington plead for supplies multiple times, the government refused to provide for them.
- The soldiers tried to build shelters, but they could not sustain the cold. Some improvised and used other objects to keep from freezing. For instance, the soldiers who stood ground stood on a hat to prevent from freezing.
- Almost 2,000 soldiers died during this winter, and even though it was hard, Washington used this time to train his soldiers to be better survivors and fighters.
Battle of Yorktown; September 28, 1781- October 19, 1781
- The Americans were not doing well in the war, and they wanted to strike against the British.
- They had a plan to ambush the British, and they had an African American spy to help with this. Britain's general, General Cornwalls, saw what was happening and moved his soldiers to Yorktown.
- George Washington had a plan to surround the British army with his army on land, so they could not escape. Washington combined his 2,500 troops with France's 4,000 troops and had about 16,000 soldiers surrounding the British.
- When the fighting stopped, it continued for the next few weeks. As the British army was getting weaker, Washington had a plan to attack the army. When Cornwalls heard this news, he sent two people to surrender to the Patriots. He would not go himself, saying he was sick.
- The Battle of Yorktown marked the end of the American Revolution. The war for the Patriots' freedom was finally over, and they had won!
Treaty of Paris; September 3, 1783
- After the Battle of Yorktown, only a few small battles took place. Soon, Britain negotiated peace with the Americans.
- It took more than two years for the delegates to agree upon peace. The Treaty of Paris was made, and it officially declaring the Americans as independent.
- The treaty set the new America's borders and another treaty out Florida back in Spain's control. In the treaty the British also promised to remove all of their troops from the colonies.
- The war was from 1774 to 1783, but it was worth it, because now the American colonists were free.
- The soldiers were proud of themselves as they went back to their families and celebrate the good news. Washington was also extremely proud as he congratulated his brave troops.