Alicia Harris Period 1 May 16, 2016

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Penguins live in a variety of places. "All penguins live in the Southern hemisphere"(Raatma, 13). They live in different places in the Southern hemisphere such as: Antarctica, the coast of Africa, New Zealand, Australia, and South America. Their habitat is cold. "Penguins can be found in coastal and oceanic waters almost throughout the Southern hemisphere south of the tropic of Capricorn"(Gilpin, 26).
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Penguins are birds that can't fly and they spend most of their lives in the ocean. In the water, they swim with speed(very fast) and on land, they walk with two feet. When they walk, they walk with a waddle. "They do this because they have legs set far back on tail, torpedo shaped bodies"(World Book Advanced).

Body Covering

Penguins are covered in thick, waterproof, short feathers. They go to land to molt and shed their feathers. Their feathers are also denser than other birds feathers that can fly. Penguin's feathers are mostly black or blue/gray and they can sometimes have yellow around their neck or head. On their underside, their feathers are white. The penguin is a vertebrate because it has a backbone.
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Penguins drink water and are carnivores. Their diet consist of anchovies, sardines, silverfish, cod, lantern fish, sprats, and pilchards. Some other common foods they eat are krill, shrimp, and crabs. ".....squid and cuttlefish are occasionally preyed upon as well." When penguins are small their diet is limited to smaller fish but as they get older and develop, they start to eat more and eat new and bigger fish.
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Penguins reproduce sexually using internal fertilization. The two penguins will mate and then the female lays the egg. The penguins must leave the sea to lay the eggs and raise their young. The male will incubate the egg for thirty to sixty days(About two months) and the egg will hatch. Their can be one or two newborns. Some penguins, not all, make nest by digging burrows under big rocks or bushes.


Even though penguins have wings and feathers, they can't fly. "Penguins are better suited for a life in the water than in the air"(Ebersole, Penguin Power). Penguins adaptations allow them to live in the most dangerous environments. "It's feathers are different, too. They aren't light, long, and fluffy. They're short. stiff, and oily. When a penguin hooks it's feathers together, they act like a wet suit"(Ebersole, Penguin Power). This is a penguin adaptation because when they swim, their feathers don't go everywhere and all over the place like most birds feathers would.

It's not safe for penguins in the Northern hemisphere which is why they don't live there. There are too many wild animals that could be predators and they wouldn't be able to live peacefully without a big animal that likes meat trying to prey on them.

Where penguins live is really cold. They live in one of the most dangerous places in the world. When they are cold, the penguins will huddle and get together to share their body heat to stay warm. When they get their body heat it is easy to lose it, therefore, "They stand on their heels instead of their whole feet"(Ebersole, Penguin Power).

Some animals that feed on penguins are seals, killer whales, seals, sea lions, and sharks.

Other Info

Some other info about penguins is:

  • Their are 17 species
  • Flightless bird(if you did not know)
  • Awkward on land
  • Lost ability to fly millions of years ago(World Book)
  • Some can climb
  • Wings look like flippers
  • Beaks can be different colors
  • Some species can weigh up to 100oz
  • Emperor Penguins live up to 20years
  • Emperor Penguins swim up to 37mph
  • Other penguins swim up to 10mph
  • Can hold breath for 2-9 minutes
  • Able to hold breath longer than 20 minutes(World Book)
  • Great eyesight(World Book)
  • "Some penguins kept in zoos have lived for more than 30 years. But in the wild, most species have a life span of about 20 years"(World Book)
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Works Cited

Gilpin, Daniel. Penguins. Danbury: Grolier Educational Sherman Turnpike, 2001.

Raatma, Lucia. Penguin. Minneapolis: Compass Point Books, 2001. Print.

Wienecke, Wienecke. "Penguin." World Book Advanced. Chicago: World Book, n.d. N.
pag. World Book Advanced. Web. 12 May 2016.

Evans, Sarah. "Emperor Penguins." Animal Action Dec.-Jan. 2008-2009: n. pag.
SIRS Discoverer. Web. 14 May 2016. <

Costello, Emily. "Going the Distance." SuperScience Feb. 2007: n. pag. SIRS
Discoverer. Web. 14 May 2016. <

Costello, Emily. "Going the Distance." SuperScience Feb. 2007: n. pag. SIRS
Discoverer. Web. 14 May 2016. <

Iwamoto, Tomio. "Sardine." World Book Advanced. Chicago: n.p., 2016. N. pag.
World Book Advanced. Web. 14 May 2016.