Science Vocabulary

By: Cynthia Muñoz

Motion

The action or process of moving or of changing place or position or movement

Mass

A unified body of matter with no specific shape

Force

The capacity to do work or cause physical change energy, strength, or active power

Balanced Forces/ Unbalanced Forces

Balanced Force: Forces are balanced when the forces pushing (or pulling) an object in one direction are the same size as the forces acting in the opposite direction.


Unbalanced Force: Pulling force exerted by a string, cable, chain, or similar solid object on another object

Work

Activity involving mental or physical effort done in order to achieve a purpose or result

Speed

The rate at which someone or something is able to move or operate

Distance

An amount of space between two things or people

Time

Continued progress of existence and events in the past, present, and future

Velocity

The speed of something in a given direction

Acceleration

Increase in the rate or speed of something

Deceleration

Decrease in the rate or speed of something

Energy

The property of matter and radiation that is manifest as a capacity to perform work (such as causing motion or the interaction of molecules)

Newton's Law of Inertia

Newton's first law states that a body at rest will remain at rest, and a body in motion will remain in motion with a constant velocity, unless acted upon by a force

Newton's Law of Force and Acceleration

The behavior of objects for which all existing forces are not balanced. The acceleration of an object is dependent upon two variables - the net force acting upon the object and the mass of the object

Newton's Law of Action-Reaction

According to Newton, whenever objects interact with each other, they exert forces upon each other. When you sit in your chair, your body exerts a downward force on the chair and the chair exerts an upward force on your body. There are two forces resulting from this interaction - a force on the chair and a force on your body. These two forces are called action and reaction forces and are the subject of Newton's third law of motion

Displacement

The moving of something from its place or position

Friction

The resistance that one surface or object encounters when moving over another

Free Fall

Downward movement under the force of gravity only

Momentum

The quantity of motion of a moving body, measured as a product of its mass and velocity

Projectile

An object propelled through the air, one thrown as a weapon

Example: A missile designed to be fired from a rocket or gun

Period

A length or portion of time

Frequency

The rate at which something occurs or is repeated over a particular period of time or in a given sample

Centripetal Force

A force that acts on a body moving in a circular path and is directed toward the center around which the body is moving

Centripetal Acceleration

The acceleration toward the center that holds a satellite in elliptical orbit

Newton (SI unit not Sir Newton)

The newton (symbol: N) is the International System of Units (SI) derived unit of force It is named after Isaac Newton in recognition of his work on classical mechanics

Inertia

Resistance of any physical object to any change in its state of motion: it is the tendency of objects to keep moving in a straight line at constant linear velocity