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Learn about the Atom--autumn style!

The Periodic Table


  • The groups are the columns or families up and down the table
  • The group number tells how many valence electrons are in that atom
  • The periods are the rows, side to side, across the table
  • The period number tells how many orbitals are in that atom
Atomic number
  • It is the number above the element symbol
  • It is the number of protons, as well, it is equal to the number of element
  • Bold, in the middle of box , is the short version of the element name
Atomic Mass
  • It is the number of protons plus the number of neutrons
  • The name if an element
  • Located at of each square of the periodic table


  • The electric charge of a proton is positive (+)
  • Located in the center an atom, in the nucleus
  • They group together with neutrons in the nucleus
Proton Mass
  • The mass of ONE proton is one amu
  • The atomic number is the mass of of the protons

The protons are labeled yellow

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Bohr Model - See the protons??


  • The charge of a neutron is.... IT DOESN'T HAVE ONE!!!!
  • The neutron remains neutra
  • The neutron is located inside the nucleus, with it's buddy the proton.
The Neutron Mass
  • To find the neutron mass....
  • Subtract the atomic number (the number of protons) from the ROUNDED atomic mass
  • The mass of one neutron is one amu
Jimmy Neutron Theme song


  • The charge of an electron is negative
  • Electrons are located in the electron cloud or orbital
  • Compared to the protons and neutrons, the electrons are TINY
Electron Cloud
  • The orbitals are located around the nucleus
  • In the orbitals are electrons
  • In the bohr model, the circles around the nucleus are the orbitals.

The grey subatomic spheres are the electrons

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Valence Electrons

  • Electron are located on the orbitals or electron cloud around the nucleus
  • The Valence Electron will be located on the outer most orbital
  • The valence electrons forms chemical bonds
  • The greater the number of valence electrons the less reactive the element is
Determining number of VE
  • When you go across the table, the number of valence electrons increases
  • The group numbers 1-2 and 13-18 are the counting numbers across the table for valence electrons
  • EX: The element magnesium is located in group 2 so it has 2 valence electrons
  • EX: The element boron is located in the 13th group and has 3 valence electrons
  • All the elements follow this rule except for the element helium, it is located in group 18 but has 2 valence electrons

The purple subatomic circles located on the outer most orbital are the valence electrons

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Calculating P,E,N


  • The number of protons is the atomic number
  • The atomic number is located at the top of the element square


  • The number of electrons is equal to the number of protons and the atomic number


  • To find the number of neutrons you must:
  • Subtract the atomic number from the ROUNDED atomic mass
  • The atomic mass number is located at the bottom of the element square