Assessment for Learning
Formative and Summative Assessments
Formative Assessments and Summative Assessments
Formative assessments are used to inform future practice. It's goal is to improve teaching and learning. An assssment is is considered formative when it's information is fed back into the system and improves performance in some way. It is given during the instructional process and is immediately used to make adjustments to form new learning ( Newman, R., 2013). Formative assessment occurs both before and during instruction. The purpose is to guide teachers in planning and preparing the lesson and improving student learning.
Example- read a page of a story not allowing students to see the illustration. Have each student create a visualization (illustration) for that page.
Example-each student or groups of students has a mini-whiteboard. As they work through problems, they can share them with you as a class, or you can walk around the classroom and see their work
Summative assessments are used to evaluate student learning, skill acquisition, and academic achievement at the conclusion of a defined instructional period, end of project, unit, course, semester, or school year. The tests, assignments, or projects are used to determine whether students have learned what they were expected to learn. Summative assessment results are often recorded as scores or grades that are then factored into a student's permanent academic record, whether they end up as letter grades on a report card or test scores used in the college admissions process.
End of term or semester tests
End of chapter test
Formative and Summative Assessment Implemented to Create an Effective Classroom Environment
Five Key Strategies
1. Clarifying, understanding, and Sharing Learning Intentions- Students should clearly understand learning objectives and criteria upon which they will be evaluated.
2. Engineering effective classroom discussions, tasks and activities that elicit of learning-Teachers should find ways to frequently check for understanding so that teaching can be adapted accordingly.
3. Providing feedback that moves learners’ forward- When providing feedback to students, comments should be specific, constructive and actionable.
4. Activating students as learning resources for one another-Encourage collaborative learning opportunities such as project based group work and peer assessment that allow students to learn from each other.
5. Activating students as owners of their own learning-By giving students the opportunity for self-assessment, you are allowing them to take the responsibility and ownership of their own learning, making it more meaningful and increasing engagement.