Llamas

Dylan Thompson

Llamas

The llama is a domesticated South American camelid, widely used as a meat and pack animal byAndean cultures since pre-Hispanic times.

The height of a full-grown, full-size llama is 1.7 to 1.8 m (5.5 to 6.0 ft) tall at the top of the head, and can weigh between 130 to 200 kilograms (280 to 450 lb). At birth, a baby llama (called a cria) can weigh between 9 and 14 kilograms (20 and 30 lb). Llamas can live for a period of about 20–30 years depending on how well they are taken care of.[citation needed] Llamas are very social animals and live with other llamas as a herd. The wool produced by a llama is very soft and lanolin-free. Llamas are intelligent and can learn simple tasks after a few repetitions. When using a pack, llamas can carry about 25% to 30% of their body weight for 8–13 km (5–8 miles).[1]

The name llama (in the past also spelled 'lama' or 'glama') was adopted by European settlers from native Peruvians.[2]

Llamas appear to have originated from the central plains of North America about 40 million years ago. They migrated to South America about 3 million years ago. By the end of the last ice age (10,000–12,000 years ago), camelids were extinct in North America.[1]As of 2007, there were over 7 million llamas and alpacas in South America and, due to importation from South America in the late 20th century, there are now over 158,000 llamas and 100,000 alpacas in the United States and Canada.[3]


Llama. (2013, May 30). Retrieved June 10, 6, from Wikipedia website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Llama



Guard behavior



Using llamas as livestock guards in North America began in the early 1980s, and some sheep producers have used llamas successfully since then.[21][22] They are used most commonly in the in western regions of the United States, where larger predators, such as the coyote, are prevalent. Typically, a single gelding (castrated male) is used.

Research suggests the use of multiple guard llamas is not as effective as one. Multiple males tend to bond with one another, rather than with the livestock, and may ignore the flock. A gelded male of two years of age bonds closely with its new charges and is instinctively very effective in preventing predation. Some llamas appear to bond more quickly to sheep or goats if they are introduced just prior to lambing. Many sheep and goat producers indicate a special bond quickly develops between lambs and their guard llama and the llama is particularly protective of the lambs.

Using llamas as guards has eliminated the losses to predators for many producers. The value of the livestock saved each year more than exceeds the purchase cost and annual maintenance of a llama. Although not every llama is suited to the job, most are a viable, nonlethal alternative for reducing predation, requiring no training and little care.


Llama. (2013, May 30). Retrieved June 10, 6, from Wikipedia website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Llama




Reproduction


Llamas have an unusual reproductive cycle for a large animal. Female llamas are induced ovulators. Through the act of mating, the female releases an egg and is often fertilized on the first attempt. Female llamas do not go into estrus ("heat").

Like humans, llama males and females mature sexually at different rates. Females reach puberty at approximately 12 months old; males do not become sexually mature until approximately three years of age.


Llama. (2013, May 30). Retrieved June 10, 6, from Wikipedia website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Llama


Pregnancy



Llamas should be tested for pregnancy after breeding at two to three, six and at least 12 weeks.

1. For "spit" testing, bring the potentially pregnant dam to an intact male. If the stud attempts to mate with her and she lies down for him within a fairly short period of time, she is not pregnant. If she remains on her feet, spits, attacks him, or otherwise prevents his being able to mate, it is assumed she is probably pregnant. This test gets its name due to the dam spitting at the male if she is pregnant.

2.For progesterone testing, a veterinarian can test a blood sample for progesterone. A high level can indicate a pregnancy

3.With palpation, the veterinarian or breeder manually feels inside the llama to detect a pregnancy. There are some risks to the llama, but it can be an accurate method for pregnancy detection.

4.Ultrasound is the most accurate method for an experienced veterinarian, who can do an exterior examination and detect a fetus as early as 45 days.

Spit testing with an intact male is generally free and is usually accurate. However, some hormonal conditions in females can make them reject a male when they are in fact not pregnant, and, more rarely, accept a male when they are pregnant. Progesterone tests can give a high reading in some females with a hormonal problem which are in fact not pregnant. Neither of the previous methods, nor palpation, can give a reasonably accurate idea of the age of the fetus, while an ultrasound procedure can. In addition, an ultrasound procedure can distinguish between pregnancy and misleading physical conditions, or between a live and dead fetus. The disadvantages of an ultrasound procedure are cost, some training in the use of ultrasound equipment is required, and not all veterinarians have the equipment needed to perform the examination.


Llama. (2013, May 30). Retrieved June 10, 6, from Wikipedia website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Llama





    Annotations

    Questions

    Understanding

    1. If someone has not read the article how would you summarize it?

    2.describe why llamas are used for guard animals.


    Interpretation

    1. What are benifits of having a llama?

    2.what is the meaning of writing this article?


    Evaluation

    1. What kind of audience is the author writing for ?

    2.why do you think the author wrote this article?



    Answers

    Understanding


    1. The main idea is about llamas. And some points are guard behavior, reproduction, and pregnancy of a llama.

    2. To teach people about llamas and how they can help protect sheep.


    Interpretation


    1. Some benifits of a llama is they can protect your sheep and they can live 20-30 years so they can last a long time.

    2. The meaning of it is to teach people how llamas are used and how there are important.


    Evaluation


    1. He is writing it for people who are interested in getting a llama or someone wanting to know about llamas.

    2.i ink he wrote it to get the point across about how good llamas can be by protecting and packing stuff.