India and its historical aspects

By: Cat Fowler

Vocabulary chapter 8 section 1

Sanskrit: language

Vedas: holy rituals

Varnas: four main social classes

Brahmans: Preist

Kshatriyas: Warriors/Rulers

Vaisyas: Common People, Merchants, Artisans, Farmers

Sudras: Unskilled Laborers, Servants

Pariahs: Slaves

Dharma: duties

Mahabharata: epic poem

Ramayana: epic poem

Upanishads: religious writings from 800-400 B.C

Brahman Nerguna: the idea that everything has a soul

Reincarnation: re-birth of the soul

Ahimsa: non-violence towards all living things

Moksha: release from the pain of rebirth complete oneness with Brahman Nerguna

chapter 8 section 1 story summery

One of the main beliefs in Hindu is that everything goes through reincarnation. There are 5 social classes that people go through during reincarnation. The first step on the social latter they go through is Pariahs which are the slaves of the social class. Then there is Sudras which are the servants and unskilled laborers. Next there is Vaisyas which are common people, merchants, artisans, and farmers. After is Kshatriyas which are the warriors and rulers of the social class. Last is the Brahmans which are the Priests. After they think that the painful reincarnation process is over and they are now one with the world or Moksha.

Vocabulary chapter 8 section 2

Siddhartha Gautama: founder of Buddhism

Nirvana: a state of freedom from cycle of rebirth

Stupas: large stone mounds

Theravada: a branch of Buddhism (established in South Asia and Southeast Asia)

Mahayana: a branch of Buddhism (dominant in China, Korea, and Japan)

Buddha: the enlighten one (Siddhartha Gautama)

chapter 8 section 2 story summary

Siddhartha Gautama is the founder of the religion of Buddhism. He was raised as a Kshatriya prince. The story is that one day he had his driver drive him around his estate and was shocked at the sickness, old age, and death but most of all the misery. After he set out to find out why his people were suffering and how to fix it. SO at around the age of 29 he left his wife and newborn son to wonder around India. For 7 years, he lived as a hermit trying to find out the truth through fasting and self-denial. However, this did not get him the answers he desires. Till one day while he was meditating under a tree he gained the answer he was looking for. He soon began to share what he had found. Soon many people began to call him Buddha "enlightened one".

chapter 8 section 3

Magadha: Indian kingdom

Chandragupta Maurya: military officer, who took over kingdom, announced himself ruler

Asoka: grandson of Chandragupta Maurya

Chandragupta I: first ruler from India's golden period

Chandragupta II: golden period reached its height under him

chapter 8 section 3 story summery

There were many great rulers of the area that is now India. One of the first was Chandragupta Maurya who around 321 B.C over through the king of Magadha and then proclaimed himself ruler. His empire lasted until around 184 B.C. then his grandson Asoka took over and used his merciless army to win any war. Asoka promoted Buddhism but still allowed his subjects to practice Hinduism if they would like, Asoka died in 232 B.C. The next great ruler was Chandragupta I, he introduced the Gupta dynasty and the net two hundred years would be called the Gupta period or what is now known as India's Golden Age. Next is Chandragupta II who ruled at the height of the Golden Age. During his reign, women and mothers were highly respected. The Gupta empire started to fail in 415 A.D, soon the Gupta empire would turn into a collection of small states.