Types of Mining and Fracking.

Nikhil Sujith

T y P e S

The two types of mining is surface mining and subsurface mining.

How are they different:


Safer and easier than subsurface mining.'

Damages the ecosystem to some extent.

It creates more mess compared to subsurface mining.

Subsurface mining:'

Does not cause damage to the ecosystems as compared to the surface mining.

It is tedious and expensive to dig.

The conditions underground are dangerous, due high amounts of heat and pressure.

Examples of Surface MIning.

Strip mining.

The type of mining which involves excavation of the earths surface to gain access to the minerals and substances under the surface.


  1. Strip mining leads to the destruction of the landscape, vegetation and the wildlife habitats at the site of the mine as the top soil and a layer of the land gets broken down.
  2. It runs the increased risk of chemical contamination of the ground water.
  3. It causes dust and noise pollution on a very large scale.
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Open Pit Mining

Mining which involves the removal of a open pit to gain access to the minerals and substances underground.


  1. Damages the earth as it scrapes away or drills a huge chunk of it.
  2. It disturbs any wildlife in and around the area.
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Mountain Top Removal

It is the mining of the summit of a mountain.


  1. It leads to the water flowing downhill to get filled with poisonous impurites.
  2. Leads to deforestation.
  3. Destruction of biodiversity.

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Sub Surface Mining

Slope Mining

It involves and access shaft running down to the site.


  1. Again like all other mining it leads to the disturbance of the natural ecosystem.
  2. May lead to landslides because the land surface looses rigidity.

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Drift Mining

Mining which uses underground horizontal passage to access the deposit site.


  1. Just like any mining causes harm to the ecosystem.
  2. May lead to landslides.
  3. Deforestation.

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Shaft Mining

Uses vertical tunnel to reach the furthest parts of the deposits.


  1. 1. Is very dangerous to human life.
  2. Leads to landslides.
  3. Kills the ecosystem
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Process of drilling and injecting fluid into the ground at high pressure to fracture shale rocks in order to release natural gas inside.

How its done:

  • 1-8 million gallons of water is brought into the plant where it is mixed with sand and other chemicals to make the fluid.
  • The fracking fluid is then injected into the pipeline running downwards.
  • High pressure is created in the end which causes the shale rocks to crack and release natural gas.
  • During this process several gasses such as methane contaminate the groundwater.
  • The waste fluid is then left to evaporate in the open air thereby causing acid rain.
  • In the end it produces 300,000 barrels of gas per day.

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