Maxine Singer


By: Aileen Castillo

Her Early Years and Education

Maxine Singer was born on February 15, 1931 in New York City to Henrietta Frank and Hayman Frank. They soon moved to Brooklyn, New York where she went to public schools. She was inspired to take science by her high school chemistry teacher. "She wasn't very friendly, but she was a very good teacher,” Said Singer in an interview. She got encouraged even more and decided to go to Swarthmore College, which is just outside of Philadelphia, then to Yale University where she graduated with high honors and a Ph.D. in biochemistry. She married Daniel Singer and had four children (1952). She was greatly influenced by Joseph S. Fruton. During the late 1940's and early 1950's many woman weren't interested in the Science filed.


Singer collaborated with Marshal Nirenberg in translating the genetic code. She discovered that long interspersed nucleotide elements or LINe's are capable of transportation and how this happens. Her hypothesis plays an important role in genetic diseases and has been confirmed by other scientists. Was also one of the first to suggest genetic engineering. "Bring closer the day when the ability to manipulate genetic material can be used to improve the life of all humans." She has been recognized by many people for example President H.W. Bush recognized her for all of the great she work she has done and gave her the National Medal of Science (1992). She has earned Public Welfare Medal (2007); Guggenheim Fellowship for Natural Science (1987); Elected to the National Academy of Science (1979); Chief of the National Cancer Institute of Biochemistry (1980-87); President of Carnegie in Washington (1988-2002).

Struggles in her time

During Singer's life there has been many struggles the United has have to overcome for example WWII, The Cold War, President John F. Kennedy, and 911. shes a great influence to all people because during her career many woman didn't want to become scientist. But she didnt care if she was a woman. she stepped up and made great achievements.