AP Psychology Intelligence Project

By Lissette Lopez

Explain the Difference Between Reliability and Validity.

Reliability and validity are very important when it comes to seeing if a test or assessment is biased. Reliability makes sure the test is consistent, while validity sees if the test is accurate and reliable. Both of these are important tools to measure a consistent and reliable test. They are different in a way that validity measures the outcome or end result, while reliability is just used to measure the consistency of the exam. Just because a test has good reliability, doesn't mean it has good validity. Everyone could get around the same score, which shows good reliability, but if they are all failing scores, then it does not have good validity.

http://fcit.usf.edu/assessment/basic/basicc.html

http://www.differencebetween.net/miscellaneous/difference-between-reliability-and-validity/

Psychological Traits: Reliability and Accuracy

The Reasons for Differences in Test Scores Among People of Different Gender, Race, or Ethnicity.

There cannot be a single test to measure one's intelligence. Intelligence can be measured in many different ways. There are too many variables that could be biased towards one group or another. Intelligence can be influenced by your environment or your genetics. The different studies in these tests are very controversial. The Chitling Test was developed to show how biased present day testing is. Tests nowadays are worded in ways that they appeal more to middle class, white kids. The Chitling Test shows that there is a culture difference when it comes to testing. It all depends on someone's genetics and environment or what they are exposed to that could determine someone's intelligence.

https://www.boundless.com/psychology/intelligence/measuring-intelligence/group-differences-in-intelligence/

Compare and Contrast Gardner and Sternberg's Theories of Intelligence.

Sterngberg and Gardner are both alike in the way that they both understand that people can be more intelligent in some places than in others. Someone might be more intelligent in math and science, and others might be more intelligent in English and history. Gardner tends to focus more on academic regions of intelligence, while Sternberg focuses on the person as a whole. Sternberg came up with the Triarchic Theory of Intelligence in which there are 3 different components: analytic intelligence, or problem solving abilities, creative intelligence, or practical intelligence which refers to the ability to adapt to different environments. Unlike Gardner, Sternberg has proven some of his intelligence theories. Gardner on the other hand came up with the Multiple Intelligence Theory where there are 8 different intelligences: naturalistic, musical, kinesthetic, logical, intrapersonal, interpersonal, visual and verbal. He did not focus on test scores when measuring intelligence.

http://psychology.about.com/od/cognitivepsychology/p/intelligence.htm

http://www.enotes.com/homework-help/please-compare-contrast-gardners-theory-multiple-436011