Abby Isom

American Nationalism

Second Bank of the United States

- (War of 1812 proved inadequate economic/banking system) - State banks issued lots of bank notes, creating confusing currency of differing values, hard to determine actual worth, counterfeiting problem - Needed national bank & Congress charter second national bank in 1816 - Similar to bank of 1791 but with more capital (could not forbid state banks from issuing notes, but compelled state banks to issue only sound notes @ risk of going out of business)

Protective Tariff

Effectively limited competition from abroad on a wide range of items (i.e. cotton cloth) despite agricultural interests who had to pay higher prices for manufactured goods

John Jacob Astor, American Fur Co.

- Created new type of commerce - Extended operations from Great Lakes to Rockies - Fur trappers far west developed important relationships with Indians and Mexicans & changed society there - Most profits flowed to merchants, not trappers

"Era of Good Feelings"

- End of First Party System & Virginia Dynasty - Growth of white settlement, trade in West, no national threats, & creation of new states reflected rising nationalism spirit - No political opposition (no more Federalists)

James Monroe

- Elected without opposition in 1816 - Chose Federalist members into his cabinet (i.e. John Quincy Adams, Calhoun) to bring Virginia Dynasty to an end; try to end partisan divisions - Goodwill Tour through the country: welcomed everywhere

Adams Onís Treaty*

- Spain ceded all of Florida to the U.S. and gave up its claim to territory north of 42nd parallel in the Pacific Northwest - Spanish government gave up claims to Texas

John Quincy Adams

- Great diplomat of the U.S. & promoted American expansion - Florida: Adams negotiated w/ Spanish minister Onís w/ to gain entire territory while Jackson invaded Florida & seized Spanish forts at St. Marks & Pensacola (Seminole War) in efforts of stopping raids on American territories - Adams implied that America could easily take Florida --> Adam- Onís Treaty

Missouri Compromise*

- Missouri enter as slave state, Maine enter as free state - Any state above the southern boundary of Missouri (36-30' parallel) would be free - Temporary resolution to strong sectionalism

Dartmouth College v. Woodward

- Republicans tried to make Dartmouth College convert into a state university - Ruled for Dartmouth, claiming that the corporation charters were contracts and inviolable - Restricted state governments ability to control corporations & further expanded meaning of Constitution

McCulloh v. Maryland*

- Marshall confirmed "implied powers" of Congress by upholding constitutionality of the Bank of the U.S. - States in South & West tried to destroy national bank - "Could Congress charter a bank? And if so, could individual states ban it or tax it?" - Yes, No; Decided in favor of the Bank, b/c if states could tax, then it could destroy the Bank

Gibbons v. Odgen

- Court strengthened Congress' power to regulate interstate commerce - New York state granted Robert Fulton's steamboat company exclusive rights to carry passengers on Hudson river, and Fulton gave Odgen business. Gibbons was granted a license under an act of Congress & competed w/ Odgen. - Marshall supported power of Congress to regulate interstate commerce & declared Odgen's state monopoly void - Promoted economic growth and protected corporations from local govn interference

Worcester v. Georgia*

- Invalidated a Georgia law that attempted to regulate access by U.S. citizens to a Cherokee country - Stated only federal government could do that, tribes were sovereign entities similar to Georgia (w/ distinct political boundaries within authority) - Affirmed rights of the tribes to remain free from the authority of state governments (but not federal) - Defined role of Indian tribes in American political system, gave Indians basic property rights, declared sovereign entities not subject to state govn, but to federal govn (that was like a governing guardian w/ ultimate authority over tribal affairs)

"Monroe Doctrine"*

- (Believed anti-spanish revolutions would strengthen America's position in the region; proclaimed neutrality in wars between Spain and its colonies but sold ships to revolutionaries (later est. diplomatic relations w/ 5 new nations) - 1820s: Written by John Quincy Adams - Stated: 1) Americas would no longer be subjects for colonization by any European powers (if did, would be considered unfriendly); 2) Europe should not interfere with internal concerns of its powers - Symbol of growing nationalism in U.S. & its dominating power in the Western Hemisphere

"Corrupt Bargain"

Adams become president with Clay's support (ruled with many frustrations) & beat Jackson though had most popular and electoral votes than other candidates

"Tariff of Abominations"

- New tariff on imported goods - Originated w/ demands of Mass. and RI, but enforced to win support of middle and western states - Benefits of protecting U.S. manufactured goods from foreign competition weighed against prospects of having to pay for more raw materials (in South) - Earned most animosity of southerners

Andrew Jackson*

- Captured Spanish forts & helped w/ Adam Onís Treaty - Received more popular and electoral votes than any other candidate but not the majority, but 12th Amendment require that only electoral votes count; lose elections - Supported by Democratic Republicans and opposed "economic aristocracy" - Enter presidency and beginning of "era of the common man" & 2-party system re-emerge