Chemistry Of Life

SIANI & ORLANDO

Water & It's Characteristics

~Adhesion may refer to the joining of to different substances to attractive forces that hold them together.

~Cohesion causes water to form drops the state or process of sticking together.

~Polarity confers molecules and compounds distinctive features in terms of structure and chemical interaction with other molecules.

~Heat Storage is a device or medium that absorbs collected solar heat and stores it for use during periods of inclement or cold weather.

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INFORMATION ON MACROMOLECULES

Macromolecules is a molecule containing a very large number of atoms, suach as proteins, nucleic acid, or synthetic polymer.

A macromolecule is a very large molecule commmomly created by polymerization of smaller subunits.

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INFORMATION ON CARBOHYDRATES

Types of Carbohydrates: Main 3 types:

  • Sugar- sugar is the simplest forms of carbohydrates. Sugar occurs naturally in some foods. (fruits, vegetables, milk, and milk products.)
  • Starch- Starch is made up of sugar units that are bonded together. Starch occurs naturally in vegetables, grains, and cooked dry beans and peas.
  • Fiber- Is also made up of sugar units that are bonded together. Fruits, vegetables, whole grains, cooked dry beans and peas are among food with rich fiber.

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Carbohydrates has six major functions within the body:

  1. Providing energy and regulation of blood glucose
  2. Sparing the use of proteins for energy
  3. Breakdown of fatty acids and preventing ketosis
  4. Biological recognition processes
  5. Flavor and Sweeteners
  6. Dietary fiber


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The 8 Types of Proteins

  • Hormonal-are protein-based chemicals secreted by the cells of the endocrine glands. Usually transported through the blood.
  • Enzymatic- Proteins accelerate metabolic processes in your cells, including liver functions, stomach digestion, blood clotting and converting glycogen to glucose.
  • Structural- known as fibrous proteins, structural proteins are necessary components of your body. Includes collagen,keratin & elastin.
  • Defensive- antibodies are formed in the white blood cells and attack bacteria, viruses and other harmful microorganisms.
  • Storage- storage proteins mainly store mineral ions such as potassium in your body. Iron, for example is an ion required for the formation of hemoglobin. The main structural component of red blood cells.
  • Transport- transport proteins carry vital minerals to the cells. Hemoglobin, for example, carries oxygen to body tissues from the lung.
  • Receptor-located on the outer part of the cells, receptor proteins control the substances that enter and leaves the cells, including water and nutrients.
  • Contractile-known as motor proteins, contractile proteins regulate the strength and speed of heart and muscle contractions. Contractile proteins can cause heart complications if they produce severe contractions.


Functions of Proteins

The 6 Functions are:

  • Repair and Maintenance-Protein is termed the building block of the body. It is called this because protein is vital in the maintenance of body tissue, including development and repair.
  • Energy-Protein is a major source of energy. If you consume more protein than you need for body tissue maintenance and other necessary functions, your body will use it for energy.
  • Hormones-Protein is involved in the creation of some hormones. These substances help control body functions that involve the interaction of several organs. Insulin, a small protein, is an example of a hormone that regulates blood sugar. It involves the interaction of organs such as the pancreas and the liver.
  • Enzymes-Enzymes are proteins that increase the rate of chemical reactions in the body. In fact, most of the necessary chemical reactions in the body would not efficiently proceed without enzymes. For example, one type of enzyme functions as an aid in digesting large protein, carbohydrate and fat molecules into smaller molecules, while another assists the creation of DNA.
  • Transportation and Storage of Molecules-Protein is a major element in transportation of certain molecules. For example, hemoglobin is a protein that transports oxygen throughout the body. Protein is also sometimes used to store certain molecules.
  • Antibodies-Protein forms antibodies that help prevent infection, illness and disease. These proteins identify and assist in destroying antigens such as bacteria and viruses. They often work in conjunction with the other immune system cells. For example, these antibodies identify and then surround antigens in order to keep them contained until they can be destroyed by white blood cells.


Information of Lipids

The Three Types Of Lipids:

  • Storage Lipids-Fatty acids

    These are the defining constituents of lipids and are in large part responsible for the distinctive physical and metabolic properties. They are also important in non-esterified form.

  • Structural Lipids-Complex Lipids in Membranes

    Cellular membranes control the transport of materials, including signalling molecules and can change in form to enable budding, fission and fusion. The cell membranes have a water loving or hydrophilic constituent and a hydrophobic or water repelling constituent making them amphiphilic.

  • Other Lipids-Proteolipids and Lipoproteins

    These are proteins that are covalently bound to fatty acids or other lipid moieties, such as isoprenoids, cholesterol and glycosylphosphatidylinositol.



Lipid Function

  1. Triglycerides-Triglyceride molecules are made from three molecules of fatty acids and one glycerol molecule. The fat can be either unsaturated or saturated. Triglycerides are able to float in a cell’s cytoplasm since they have a lower density than water and are non-soluble, as is the case with all lipids.
  2. Steroids-Steroids have a structure that resembled four rings fused together which are made from carbon molecules.Steroids benefit the body by helping determine and control the structure of plasma membrane.
  3. Phospholipids-Phospholipids earn their name as their constitution is primarily phosphate groups. They contain molecules that both attract and repel water, playing a key role in constituting cell membranes.
  4. Glycolipids-Short sugar chains form glycolipids, which can be found in a cellular membrane’s exoplasmic surface. They play an important role in boosting the body’s immune system.
  5. Lipoproteins-A lipoprotein is a combination of proteins and lipids found in a cell’s membrane – examples being antigens and enzymes. Lipoprotein help fat move around the body in the bloodstream and exist in the form of Low Density Lipoprotein (HDL) and High Density Lipoprotein (LDL).
  6. Waxes-Along with a chain of alcohols, fatty acids are found in waxes. These are extremely common lipids and can be found on animal feathers, in human ears and even on the leaves of plants. Their primary function is one of protection.


Types Of Nucleic Acids

  • RNA- A polymeric constituent of all living cells and many viruses, consisting of a long, usually single-stranded chain of alternating phosphate and ribose units with the bases adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil bonded to the ribose. RNA molecules are involved in protein synthesis and sometimes in the transmission of genetic information. Also calledribonucleic acid.
  • DNA- A nucleic acid that carries the genetic information in the cell and is capable of self-replication and synthesis of RNA. DNA consists of two long chains of nucleotides twisted into a double helix and joined by hydrogen bonds between the complementary bases adenine and thymine or cytosine and guanine. The sequence of nucleotides determines individual hereditary characteristics.
  • Type Of Function-The main function of nucleic acids is to store and transmit genetic material.