Nationalism in Africa and Asia

Amelia, Conner

Na·tion·al·ism

Noun

Devotion and loyalty to one's own country and the desire for national advancement or political independence.

Nationalism in Asia

In 1920 Lenin adopts a new revolutionary strategy aimed outside the western world, 1919 Cominstern is formed as a worldwide organization of Communist parties dedicated to the advancement of world revolution. At the end of 1920 almost every colonial society in Asia had a Communist party. Local communists briefly established relationships with existing Nationalist parties, both having common struggle against western Imperialism. The Communist- Nationalist alliances were strong. Communist parties had little success in 1930, Communists failed to build a secure base of support among the mass of the population.

Japanese nationalism was born at the end of the nineteenth century. During the Meiji period, industrialisation, centralisation, mass education and military conscription produced a shift in popular allegiances. Feudal loyalties were replaced by loyalty to the state, personified by the Emperor.
Japanese Invasion of Manchuria

Nationalism in Africa

Nationalism swept Africa because most of the African nations were owned and controlled by imperialistic nations such as Britain, Germany, Italy, and France. The African nations revolted to gain their independence because they were promised independence if they fought in the war. They didn’t get independence so they revolted. Eventually they gained their independence.

Life was just as bad as a colonial subject as life under Fascism or Nazism. Post-war, European colonies in Asia demanded and gained independence from Europe. Most important was the independence of India and Pakistan from Britain. Many Africans followed India's example of the possible politics for their country. In the late 1940-early 1950, new, mass-based, political parties were formed in most African colonies. Libya,1951, and Egypt,1952, were the first African nation to gain independence. Most countries gained independence by 1966. most countries fought with mainly non-violent strategies.

The next significant event in the development of African nationalism was World War II. Nearly two million Africans were recruited as soldiers, porters, and scouts for the Allies during the war. When these soldiers returned home, they returned to colonial states that still considered them inferior. Many veterans had expected that their dedication to colonial governments would be recognized and they would be rewarded accordingly. This was not to be, and these soldiers returned home to conditions worsened by a weak global economy. Because they had fought to protect the interests of the colonial powers only to return to the exploitation and indignities of colonial rule, these men became bitter and discontent.

Essential Questions

How did nationalism contribute to World War 2?

What was the outcome of Nationalism in Asia and Africa?

Citations

Bentley, Jerry. Ziegler, Herb. “NATIONALISM AND POLITICAL IDENTITIES IN ASIA, AFRICA, AND LATIN AMERICA”. Traditions Encounters A Global Perspective on the Past,

Online Learning Center.Third Edition. McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2006. Web. 29 April 2013. http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072957549/student_view0/chapter36/


Matrix. African Studies Center. “Unit Two: Studying Africa through the Social Studies”. Exploring Africa. Student Edition. Web. 30 April 2013. http://exploringafrica.matrix.msu.edu/students/curriculum/m7b/activity4.php


Image. Decolonization. Exploring Africa. 2 May 2013.JPG file.


Image. History of Africa3. How Stuff Works. 3 May 2013. GIF file.


Spielvogel, Jackson. Glencoe World History. Columbus, Ohio, U.S.A: McGraw-Hill Companies, 2003. Print.