# A Guide to Stoichiometry:

## Let's Get to Know Baking Soda and Hydrochloric Acid

Type of Reaction:

Double Replacement

Balanced Equation:

IUPAC names:

Baking soda: Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate

HCl: Hydrochloric Acid

NaCl: Sodium Chloride

Water: Dihydrogen Monoxide

CO2: Carbon Dioxide

Uses:

• Cooking purposes
• Fighting Fires

Baking Soda and Hydrochloric Acid

## Molar Mass

• Needed for later conversions
• To do, add all the element's atomic mass together, making sure to multiply each element's mass with its subscript

Baking soda:

(22.990) + (1.008) + (12.011) +3(15.9994) = 84.006 g

Na + H + C + 3(O)

Hydrochloric Acid:

(1.008) + (35.453) = 36.461 g

H + Cl

Salt:

(22.990) + (35.453) = 58.443 g

Na + Cl

Water:

2(1.008) + (15.9994) = 18.015 g

2(H) + O

Carbon Dioxide:

(12.011) + 2(15.9994) = 44.009 g

C + 2(O)

## Mole to Mole Conversion

• The first mole A is your given.
• Mole B over Mole A is the coefficients of your balanced formula
• Multiply the top, divide by the bottom and you get your answer!
• Don't forget units! And Sig Figs!

Let's try an example!

## Mass to Mass Conversion

• The first grams A is your given.
• The second grams A is your molar mass (refer to the top section) of your atom in one mole of that atom
• Mole B over Mole A is the coefficient from the balanced equation
• Grams B over Mole B is the molar mass of your other atom in one mole
• Multiply the top, divide by the bottom and you get your answer!
• Don't forget units! And Sig Figs!

Let's try an example!

## Limiting and excess reactant

• Use mass to mass conversion to find out how many mass of a product can be produced with a specific amount of the reactants
• Convert your first reactant to a specific product and do the same for the other reactants
• The reactant that makes the least product is your Limiting Reactant (LR) and the reactant that makes the most product is your Excess Reactant (ER)
• Don't forget units! And Sig Figs!

Let's try an example!

This states that baking soda is the LR and the hydrochloric acid is the ER!

## Theoretical Yield

• The amount of product you predict to come out from your experiment if everything is done perfectly
• Found by the mass to mass conversion of the LR

For baking soda and hydrochloric acid, the theoretical yield is...

## Percent Yield

• A percent that states how close your experiment was to what was supposed to come as a result

Let's say the experiment came out with 2.52 g of carbon dioxide, let's see what's the percent yield

You were pretty successful in your experiment!

• It is hardly ever 100% yield since there are small errors that could happen that alter the results