History of Americas

Paper 2

Causes, Practices and Effects of Wars : Topic 1

Question 5: How effective have attempts been to achieve collective security since the Second World War ( 1939-1945)? Support your view with specific examples.

The attempts to achieve collective security since the Second World War was successful at times:

United Nations (UN):

  • Was created in order to ensure that governments of major countries around the world would continue to actively fight against the Axis Powers in World War II.
  • Designed to intervene only in serious matters around the world, serving as a global council.
  • Created the United Nations Temporary Commission on Korea to oversee withdrawal of occupation forces and to supervise elections that would reunify Korea.
  • Supervised elections in the South and Synge Rhee was elected president.
  • Security Council to pass a resolution authorizing the use of force to restore Aristide to Haiti's presidency.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO):

  • Military alliance organized by the West in response to perceived threat from the Soviet Union.
  • United States joined assumed leadership in January 1949.
  • First Berlin Ultimatum where Khrushchev warned the Soviet Union would sign a separate peace with GDR that would include handing over control of the access routes into West Berlin.
  • These moves were intended partly to force the west to reopen negotiations on the future of Germany, and in particular to prevent NATO's attempts to make West Germany a nuclear power.
  • In 1958, NATO did in fact consider taking such a step, the prospect obviously alarmed the Soviet and the East German leaders.
Warsaw Pact:

  • The defensive military alliance formed six years after the information of NATO.
  • Established shortly after West Germany was allowed to join NATO and rearm in May 1955.
  • Alarmed USSR prompting an alliance with its satellite states in Eastern Europe.
  • 1980's: Beset by problems related to the economic slowdown in all Eastern European countries.
  • Late 1980's political changes in most of the member states made the Pact ritually ineffectual.
  • 1980's East Germany left the Pact in order for unification with West Germany.

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