Canada's defining moments

Sukhpal Singh Sidhu

Canada is one of the greatest countries in the world. Canada has been known as a peacekeeping nation, a mediator in conflicts, the home of hockey and rich in spirit. We've also made a impression in the history books, and the international community has finally seen Canada as a real power in the world. Looking back on our history, here are 4 moments that helped define the country and the people we are today.

Battle of Ortona

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The battle of Ortona began at December 20th 1943 and ended on December 28th, lasting a total of 8 days. The battle took place in the Italian city of Ortona, located on the coast of Italy. The Canadian army used a tactic they invented called mouse-holing. Mouse-holing is a tactic now used in urban warfare, in which soldiers create access to joining rooms or buildings by blasting through a wall. This tactic is used to avoid open streets, where advancing soldiers, are easily targeted by machine guns and sniper rifles. During the battle of Ortona, the Canadian Army used it to great effect.
Various Canadian regiments had fought in the battle of Ortona. Canadian casualties from the battle were nearly 1400 men, effectively taking the 1st Canadian Division out of the war for a short period in order to rest its wounds, while not much is known about the German casualties.
Cities throughout Italy were being liberated by allied forces in hope of gaining the upper hand in the war. Canada was given the responsibility of taking Ortona. Which we did and it was a small but effective step to winning the war. On December 28th 1943 Germany withdrew from Ortona giving the Canada army the victory, and it also showed the world that Canada was a strong and powerful nation.
Battle of Ortona - Canadian Army Newsreel

Black Tuesday

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Black Tuesday refers to October 29, 1929, when panicked sellers traded nearly 16 million shares on the New York Stock Exchange (four times the normal volume at the time), and the Dow Jones Industrial Average fell -12%. Black Tuesday is often told as the beginning of the Great Depression.The Great Depression lasted approximately 10 years and affected both industrialized and non industrialized countries in many parts of the world.The situation worsened yet again on the infamous Black Tuesday, October 29, 1929, when more than 16 million stocks were traded.

  • The 1929 stock market crash and the Great Depression formed the largest financial crisis of the 20th century.


  • The future Prime Minister Louis St Laurent was wiped out and was still paying off his margin debt during the second world war.


  • The Canadian bluechip stocks lost over 5 billion dollars in value which in 1929 exceeds anything before or since.


  • The stock market ultimately lost $ 14 billion that day.

Black Tuesday

Trudeau Era

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Trudeau Era

Joseph Philippe Pierre Yves Elliott Trudeau,usually known as Pierre Trudeau or Pierre Elliott Trudeau, was a Canadian politician who served as the 15th prime minister from April 20, 1968, to June 4, 1979, and again from March 3, 1980, to June 30, 1984. He was born October 18, 1919 – September 28, 2000,

During Trudeau's era he brought a lot of change in Canada. He was responsible for things such as :


· Appointed Jeanne Sauve first woman Speaker of House of Commons, 1980

· Official Languages Act, 1969

· Partition of Canadian Constitution, 1982

· Implementation of War Measure Act, 1970 ("Just watch me…")

· Canadian Charter of Rights, 1982

· Wage and Price controls, 1975

Trudeau died on September 28, 2000 in Montreal from prostate cancer. He had also been suffering with Parkinson’s disease. He almost made it to his 81st birthday on October 18, which is also the day his grandson, Xavier (Justin’s son) was born.

The queen sign the proclamation of the consitution

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The proclamation document

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The Charter of rights and freedoms

The Canadian charter of rights and freedoms, often referred to as the charter is a bill of rights written into the constitution of Canada. It is designed to unify Canadians by embodying those rights and principles; and if you do not, then there could be severe consequences. The Charter was signed into law by queen Elizabeth 2 on April 17 1982 with the rest of the act. After this Canada was defined as a independent country.


Some rights entrenched in the Constitution are:


1. The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms guarantees the rights and freedoms set out in it subject only to such reasonable limits prescribed by law as can be demonstrably justified in a free and democratic society.


2. Everyone has the following fundamental freedoms:

  • (a) freedom of conscience and religion;

  • (b) freedom of thought, belief, opinion and expression, including freedom of the press and other media of communication;

  • (c) freedom of peaceful assembly; and

  • (d) freedom of association.

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Defining moments are moments the shape a certain way things are, for example the four defining moments above shaped the way Canada is today and how other people think of Canada today. And Canada has had many other defining moments and will have many more defining moments which will make Canada even stronger and healthier.

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