Viruses and Bacteria

By Michael Quirk

4a

Question: Compare and contrast a prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

prokaryotic cells dont have a nuclear membrane and no nucleous. Also, cell division by fission and budding. A eukaryotic cell has a nucleous and nuclear membrane. Also membrane cound organelles and cell division by mitosi.

11b

Question: How can viruses vectors be used in gene technology?

Viruses use normal human cells to carry the diseases they carry. They insert their genes into healthy cells to carry the gene and then reproduce it as well. Scientist are trying to put good genes into viruses so they insert the healthy gene into cells and then they reproduce the good gene. This is seen in insulin.

Question: What do helpful bacteria do for humans and animals?

Most bacterias are very harmful to humans and animals. An example is milk. If the wrong bacteria is introduced into the milk it could spoil and make you sick. However, if the right bacteria is introduced then it could make products like cheese and butter.

Questions: What is the function/purpose of endospores, and how does it help bacteria?

Endospores are very helpful to bacteria in the time of great stress. They help protect the cell from nature. They are resistant to high temperature, UV rays, chemical damage, ect. If a bacteria finds itself in an environment that is too hot to normally survive, it will creat the endospores to preserve the bacteria and the DNA.

4b

Question: What are the cellular processes relate them to bacteria and viruses?

Many people think of viruses and bacteria similar but they are really very different. First, viruses are very small, they cannot grow or reproduce of their own. This is why they seek host cells for reproduction. The virus only has two main parts. First is the genetic information and DNA and the second is the outer covering that helps viruses transfer the DNA into host cells. Bacteria are much larger than viruses and have more parts to them including cytoplasm and ribosomes to carry out cellular functions. The bacteria has a hard outer shell to protect it from leaving and entering.

Question: What are the necessary conditions to grow bacteria?

Bacteria is a single celled organism that doesn't need other bacteria to help it. It can grow in many different ranges of temperature from 32-115 degrees but most grow best in 70-90 degrees. Also, they need water to dissolve food and nutrient. Most need oxygen but not all and some can grow in both. They also require some form of food to grow on.

Question: How does an antibiotic kill bacteria without killing other cells?

Antibiotics are very specifically designed to attack the bacteria. Also, they are engineered to find the certain proteins that the bacteria has. Once they find that bacteria it will destroy the outer shell so the bacteria will die.

4c

Question: What does the immune system do to prevent viruses?

Our bodies are designed to recognize our own bodies cells and know when there is a unknown virus in the body. We use white blood cells to kill germs but sometimes we need a stronger attack. T and B lymphocytes help with this. B attach to the virus and make sure it doesn't replicate and T help flag the virus and destroy them.

Question: What is the differences of getting rid of viruses and bacteria?

There are two different ways to get rid of viruses or bacteria. For a virus, you must take a vaccine which is a small part of the virus. The immune system can easily kill the small virus but the immune system leaves a small number of T and B lymphocytes to recognize and kill the virus faster when you actually get the virus. Bacteria is treated with antibiotics that go and destroy the outer shell of the bacteria so it dies.

Question: What is the lytic or lysogenic cycle?

Lytic is the main cycle used for viruses. The virus attaches to the host and puts its DNA into the host. It also takes control of its mechanics to reproduce the virus. The other cycle is the lysogenic cycle which doesn't occur as often but occurs in harsh conditions. In this cycle, the virus inserts the DNA to be reproduced without taking over complete control of the cell. This cycle can turn into lytic.

Enrichment Question

Question: If a virus didn't require a host cell/organism to live, how would its survival methods and effect on other organisms change?


Honestly, the virus would probably be less harmful to humans and animals because it does not need their cells and a host and to reproduce. It would be treated more like a bacteria in that it the immune system doesn't need to see it first. It would just need a medicine to help stop the virus.