Vietnam War

Kristen Whitaker, Tristan Spencer

Definitions


  • Cold War- War between the U.S. and Soviet Union. No shots were fired, involved technological advances.

  • Containment- Policy that prevents the spread of communism

  • DMZ- The border barrier between North and South Korea.

  • Domino Theory- One country falls, and then the next, and the next ect.

  • Draft- Signing papers saying that you can be chosen to go to war in the time of need.

  • General William Westmoreland- Commanded the U.S Military Operations in the Vietnam War.

  • Ho Chi Minh- Communism Leader of North Vietnam

  • My Lai Massacre- The mass murder committed by the U.S soldiers on 347 and 504 unarmed civilians in South Vietnam.

  • National Liberation Front- political group in South Vietnam that fought against the U.S and South Vietnam because they were in favor of communism.

  • Ngo Dinh Diem- Non-Communist leader of South Vietnam

  • Pentagon Papers- The name given to a secret Department of Defense study done in Vietnam, about the military and political involvement. These papers were sent out the New York Times and given to the public.

  • Tet Offensive- Surprise attack organized by Viet Cong and launched against forces in 1969. The attack was against the military and civilian commands and control centers that were located throughout South Vietnam.

  • Viet Cong- Communist operation group in the South that opposed Diem and the U.S.

  • Vietnamization- Nixon wanted to end all U.S involvement in the war and so he trained, and equipped, South Vietnams forces so that they could fight their own war and we didn’t have to be involved anymore.
  • Events

    1945- Ho Chi Minh declared Vietnam an independent nation

    1950- the U.S. gives massive support to France to reestablish its rule in Vietnam after WW2.

    1954- Eisenhower explained the domino theory to the U.S.

    May 1954- France and the U.S. surrendered to Vietnam.

    July 1954- France, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, the U.S., China, Laos, and Cambodia met to hammer out a piece agreement. The Geneva Accords temporary divided Vietnam.

    1956- an election is suppose to be held to determine if Vietnam will be communist or democratic.

    1957- a Communist opposition group in the South, Vietcong, had begun attacks on the Diem government.

    1965- First major U.S. combat units arrive in Vietnam.

    November 1, 1963- Diem was assassinated.

    1968- Richard M. Nixon is elected president.

    1969- U.S. troops begin their withdrawal from Vietnam.

    1970- The draft is phased out.

    1972- Richard M. Nixon is reelected.

    1973- United States signs cease-fire with North Vietnam and vietcong.

    1975- Communists capture Saigon; South Vietnam surrenders


    Tonkin Gulf Resolution

    President Lyndon B. Johnson announced to the public that U.S ships had been attacked by the North Vietnamese. Planes had been sent out on the attackers and President Johnson asked Congress to pass the Tonkin Gulf Resolution which stated that the President can take all necessary measures to fight back and use U.S forces to prevent any other aggression. President Johnson and later President Nixon used this Resoultuion for the U.S to be in Vietnam legally. This affected the U.S military because it allowed us to continue to be in Vietnam and help South Vientam during the war.

    Oral history(Kristen)

    Larry Quick grew up near Indianapolis in a little community called Big Springs. His Uncle was a F-86 pilot in Korea who Larry looked up too and wanted to be. When Larry went to college at Butler University he joined the ROTC and eventually went into the Air Force. Unfortunately he was not able to become a pilot because his vision was 20/40 and you have to have 20/20 vision to become a pilot so he went to Nav school to become a navigator. He was now listed into the military and had a specific job. In 1960 he entered the Vietnam war and started navigating drones and planes. The drones would receive and transmit information but they were top secret and he couldn’t share the information with anyone. Further on in his career he started teaching others who were in the program about drones and used airplanes to help the warfare in Vietnam.

    Oral History(Tristan)

    Raymond S. Dean served in the military during the Vietnam War. He was party of the Army Security Agency that actually got shut down after the war. Before the war, Raymond was studying neuroscience on a full scholarship at a university. He got drafted into the war when he was 18 years old, and because he was so bright he got chosen to be in the ASA (Army Security Agency). While in Vietnam Raymond rose in the ranks because there was a lack of people serving where he was. In Vietnam Raymond’s job was to unscramble radio messages from the Vietnamese and then translate it with his team. When in the ASA Raymond was like a spy. In Vietnam the army and Raymond's team acted relaxed. They only wore there badges saying what rank they were and that was it. Any other place or war that would definitely not be allowed. People he served with used whatever guns that suited them. The Vietnam War was very different. Where Raymond was serving, the things that would scare him would be 4-5 foot lizards that would crawl out from under his air-conditioned trailer. After the war Raymond had eventually become a Captain and he went back to studying neuroscience.

    Songs

    Eve of Destruction

    Masters of War

    American Pie

    It better end soon

    Get together

    For what its worth

    People got to be free

    Paint it, black

    Put a little love in your heart

    Sugar sugar


    Picked the first 3 top songs because they demonstrate the hardships of the Vietnam war and what the soldiers had to go though.

    Hugh Thompson

    Hugh Thompson- Thompson was a helicopter pilot during the Vietnam War. While he was doing a reconnaissance mission over the village of My Lai he saw bodies of men, women, and children all strewn on the ground. He decided to land and saw a massacre occurring. He flew and stopped near a bunker where 10 vietnamese civilians were hiding from American troops. He was able to rescue these civilians and threatened to shoot the American troops if they shot at the civilians. Thompson’s actions make him a hero because of all the lives he saved, even though he put himself in danger in doing so.

    William Calley

    William Calley- Calley was one of the soldiers that took part in the My Lai massacre. These soldiers committed horrible acts of slaughtering, harmless citizens of Vietnam that were of no threat at all. No person was shown mercy. The youngest to be killed of the citizens was a 1 year old, and the oldest was 82. This massacre is one of the worst memories in America’s war history. Calley is in no doubt a villain and was one of the few that was actually punished for the horrible crimes that he had committed.