Vascular Malformations

By Ashlee Rollins

What is a Vascular Malformation?

A Vascular Malformation is an abnormal connection of an artery, vein, or both. This includes normal veins or arteries leading directly to veins.

Arteriovenous Malfunctions

Arteriovenous Malfunctions are a tangle of abnormal and poorly formed blood vessels (arteries and veins) with a higher rate of bleeding than normal vessels. This can irritate the surrounding vessels of the brain and cause seizures and severe headaches.

Left untreated, AVM's can enlarge, and rupture causing intracerebral or subchronid hemorrhage and permanent brain damage

What is the treament?

There are three methods that can be used

  1. Direct removal using microsurgical techniques
  2. Stereotactic radiosurgery: uses computer guidance to concentrae radiation to malformed vessels to the brain
  3. Embolization using neuroendovascular techniques

What is Moyamoya Disease

Moyamoya Disease is a progressive disease of the carotid arteries and their major branches that can lead to irreversible blockage.

Moyamoya cones from the Japanese word for "puff of smoke" due to the appearance of the lesions that form

Moyamoya affects people of the Japanese origin far more often than the general population.

Children affected with Moyamoya Disease may have strokes, TIA'S seizures, and involuntary movement.

Moyamoya Disease is treated by either

  • Encephalodurarteriosynangios (EDA)
  • Encephalomyosynangios (EMS)
  • Super-ficial temporal artery middle cerebral therapy (STA-MCA)
  • Multiple Burr holes

Vein of Gealen Malformation

Abnormal connection between arteries and the deep draining veins of the brain. Because VGM'S don't have capillaries, this puts excessive strain on the heart, that leads to cardiac failure.

Rarer than AVM's, VGM can sometimes be determined by prenatal ultrasound

, or through cardiac failure in infants. Occurs during embryonic development so it's a congenital birth defect.

Arteriovenous Malformations - Causes, Symptoms, Treatments & More…