A Variety of Cultures

Because of the presence of trade routes, Transcaucasia has been affected by many different cultures. today more than 50 different peoples and cultures are in this region. Migrants brought a great variation of languages to the region. Arab geographers called the region Jabal Al-Alsun meaning "mountain of language." The Indo-European, Caucasian, and Altiac languages are the regions most common.

Migration Brings Religion

There are many different religions in this region. Although, the main religions are Christian or the Islamic faith. Christianity is mainly found in Armenia and Georgia. The Islamic faith is mainly found in Azerbaijan.


The regions diverse population has not always been great. Tension very rarely became open hostility under the rule of the soviets. However, after the collapse of the USSR in 1991, tensions among different cultural groups have resulted in violence.

  • civil war broke out in Georgia
  • Armenia fought a war with Azerbaijan over a disputed territory Nagorno Karabakh
  • 1723- Peter the Great's generals had take over Baku the capital of Azerbaijan
  • 1801- Russia annexed Georgia
  • 1828- Russian armies took control of a large part of Armenia
  • late 1870s- czar's added Transcaucasia to the Russian Empire
  • 1917- Russian Revolution (after this the Transcaucasian Republic enjoyed a brief period of independence
  • early 1920s- the Red Army- the name of the soviet military- had taken control of the region
  • 1991- Transcaucasia regained political independence after the fall of the Soviet Union



Each of Transcaucasia's republics has a significant agricultural output. The humid subtropical lowlands are ideal for growing valuable crops such as:

  • tea
  • fruits (grapes being the most important)
Georgia's mild climate also once fueled a profitable tourist industry. There was little to no industry in Transcaucasia before the soviet union took control. Soviet planners transformed Transcaucasia from a largely agricultural area into an industrial and urban region. A number of industrial centers built by the Soviets continue to produce:

  • iron
  • steel
  • chemicals
  • consumer goods

Azerbaijan has a long history in oil production. In fact, the name Azerbaijan means "Land of Flames." The founders of the republic chose the name because of the fires that erupted "by magic" from the waters and the rocks of the Caspian Sea. The fires were results of underground oil and gas deposits.