The Reconstruction (1863-1877)

October 24, 2012 By: Mariah H.

Reconstruction Plan

The Reconstruction plan was a time between 1863-1877. The plan was made after the Civil war which was a long and bloody war. The Reconstruction plan was made to reunite the South (Confederates) with the North (Union). Though the Reconstructions main plan was to reunite the South with the North it turned out helping Africans Americans in some ways.

Plans for Reconstruction

Lincoln's, Johnson's and Congress plan

  • Lincoln's Plan
  • 10% of population would take a oath of loyalty and establish a government.
  • Pardon to all Southerners except high ranking officers.
  • Try to get the South together as fast as possible
  • Johnson's Plan
  • 10% plan to take a oath and run through Johnson (not Congress).
  • All Southerners were pardoned.
  • Congress Plan/radicals
  • Constitutional guarantee of the rights and security of freed people.
  • South punished for denying the right to vote to black citizens.
  • Civil authorities in the territories were subject to military supervision.

Black Codes and their effect on African Americans

Black Codes were made to limit African Americans rights. They wouldn't let black's have a meeting without a white person in the room. They made it so black's couldn't hold office, couldn't own their own guns, serve on juries or go to school with whites. In some states black's couldn't live in town's unless they worked as servants. Some states made black's sign long-term contracts or they couldn't live there. If they refused they could be arrested or put up for auction.

Racism and Discrimination on African Americans

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Ku Klux Klan was made up of racist people who lynched, tortured, murdered and beat African Americans. They also killed white republican and legislatures. They scared African Americans but many stood up in defense. The Civil Rights Act of 1866 it stated that all people born in the U.S. was a citizen, but it didn't guarantee voting rights. Many African Americans tried to protect their new rights by buying land or making businesses right away. Also there was the Jim Crow laws that prohibited blacks from using the same transportation as whites. This later led to Segregation which banned blacks from using the same public areas as whites; bathrooms, water fountains, cemeteries etc.

Civil Rights Acts

The 13th Amendment was ratified on Dec. 1865, it abolished slavery. This is a huge leap for African Americans because now they are able to do what they want. The 14th Amendment was allowed African Americans to become citizens of the United States. The 15th Amendment guaranteed blacks federal voting. The blacks could know vote but the women were angry because they still couldn't.

The Fall of Reconstruction

The Civil Rights Act of 1875 banned businesses serving the public to discriminating African Americans. This later led to the fact the Republicans and Democrats came to the same conclusion that Reconstruction was becoming a burden. The Compromise of 1877 let Hayes become president and the Republicans would withdraw their troops from the South. This led to the end of the Reconstruction era.