# Electrostatistics

### By: Alfredo de Leon

Basics of Electric Charge

## Electrical Forces and Charges

Fundamental Rule at the base of all Electrical phenomena: Like charges repel and Opposite charges attract.

The Fundamental Electricity Property to which the mutual attractions or repulsions between electrons or protons is attributed is called charge.

## Words to Know

Electrostatics is electricity at rest.
Electrical forces arise from particles in atoms.
Ion is a charged atom.

## Things to Know

- The mass of a proton is 2000 greater than the mass of an electron.
- The magnitudes of a proton's charge and an electron's charge are always equal and never change.
- The reason you don't feel electrical forces that act on you all the time is because the repelling and attracting forces are cancelling each other out.
- If a rubber rod is rubbed by a piece of fur, the rubber becomes negatively charged, and the fur becomes positively charged.

## Model of the Atom

Shows relationship between protons, neutrons, and electrons in the atom. (Proposed by Rutherford and Bohr in the early 1900s)

Outermost electrons are bound loosely to an atom and can easily be dislodged.

The electrical force is much stronger than the gravitational force.

## Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons

Protons - Positive charge
Neutrons - No charge
Electrons - Negative charge

## An object that has unequal numbers of electrons and protons is electrically charged.

An atom with a net positive charge is a positive ion; it has lost one or more electrons.
An atom with a net negative charge is a negative ion; it has gained one or more electrons.
A neutral atom has as many protons as electrons, so the charge is balanced.