Assyrians

By: Taylor and Austin

Time Period

1100-612 BCE

Assyrians were put in this time period to help the development of
cuneiform and new technology. They helped cuneiform become a better,
more thought out system of writing. They also were the first people to
invent iron weapons, a library, and laws. Their success in their time
period helped mold how the world is today.

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4 Artifacts

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Sickle Sword

a curved sword used to write cuneiform with. Gods and
kings were the only people who usually had these.
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Nimrud

a pair of heavy cuffs set with stones that look like large,
startled eyes, from the treasure of Nimrud, Assyria
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Lamassu

The human headed, winged bull and lion symbolizes protection, it protected and supported the doorways of Assyrian palaces.
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Horse Blinker

This blinker was crafted from ivory and they often carved very elaborate sphinx with Egyptian cobras on it's head with sun disks on its head.

Primary Source Document

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Cuneiform Tablet

This fragment of a clay tablet is from the library of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh and it cannot be completely deciphered but historians have been able to figure out the main points which discuss the flood from the point of view of the Assyrians.

Advanced Cities

Nineveh was the first established city. This city was in Mesopotamia
on the eastern bank of the Tigris River and Capitol to the Assyrians.
This city was the most populated amongst the three major cities in
Mesopotamia during the Assyrians time. The city was the largest for
fifty years until civil war was fought causing the city to fall and be
destroyed.

Ashur was a city that was located on the western bank of the Tigris
River. Ashur became the first royal capital of the Assyrian nation.
Ashur was known as the religious Capitol and the last resting place of
the kings. Ashur was then sacked by the Babylonians then became
destroyed.

Arbel was the third city to be established. It's main purpose was
agricultural. With Arbel being added to the mix of cities it formed a
thriving metropolis.

Social Structure

Assyrian social structure was based off of seven different classes:
king, scribes, merchants, artisans, poets and musicians, framers, and
slaves. These seven classes are ranked from wealthiest to the poorest.
Usually the King ruled all the land and was in charge. Next there were
scribes which basically helped the king out with "important news and
decisions". Merchants were next which made trades with other
civilizations making money for the king. Then Artisans. They made
things by hand used for trades and would be classified as "middle
class". Farmers, poets, and musicians made little money and would be
what is classified as the "low class". Then there were slaves who
worked for no pay and had hard labor throughout most the day.

Religion

Assyrians practiced two typed of religion throughout their time;
Ashurism and Christianity. Ashurism was the first religion practiced
by the Assyrians. Their god was named Ashur. That is why the city
Ashur is named to be the religious Capitol. The faith should direct
ashurians to believe in their nation as one people one name. They are
monotheistic. Just like Christianity, Ashurism is much like it. Soon
the Assyrians converted to Christianity and became Christians. Many
Assyrians were fine with transaction except a few.

Government

The Assyrian government was a monarchy that depended on the social structure. If the lower classes didn't do their jobs, then the middle and higher classes couldn't do theirs. Assyria became an empire under the leadership of Sargon II, who led from 722 to 705. The last of the great emperors was Esarhaddon, who became emperor by killing his father, Sennacherib, in 681. Ashurbanipal was the last Assyrian king. Ashurbanipal lost Egypt in 655 and during his reign, there was a horrible civil war from 652 to 648, which led to economic destruction after 631. During the war, the casualty rate was extremely higher than the birth rate and that combined with the economic destruction ended Assyria.

System of Writing

They adapted cuneiform from the Babylonians. The Assyrians were a part of Mesopotamia and because that's where cuneiform began, that's how it was brought into their society. They started libraries, where they kept record of scientific knowledge and other things they leant on their own and from Babylonia.

Technology and Contributions

Some of the world's oldest roads were built during the reign of of Sargon II. The road system allowed for free trade and the postal system to be developed. The Assyrian Empire was the first to create aqueducts which is an artificial channel for conveying water. They also started the first general use of iron. Their artists are remembered with realistic and emotional representations of kings at war and sport. However the Assyrians are best remembered for their accomplishments in warfare. They were the first group of people to add cavalry to their army, which was a decisive factor in their victories, and they were a part of the first state that built its society around the armed forces.

Analysis/Conclusion

In conclusion, this ancient city of Assyria contributed a lot to our life today. They helped form roads which was a trade system then, and is still a trade system. They formed libraries and those libraries helped modern historians uncover facts about how the world was back then. This civilization was the basis of our every day life. They were the first people to use a key and a lock, they began the system of time keeping, they created guitars, a plumbing system, and so much more.

Sources

Conclusion, Technology, Government:

"Assyria." World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 16 Sept. 2014.


Government:

"Assyria." Ancient History Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2014.


Government:

"All About Assyrians." All About Assyrians. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Sept. 2014.


System of Writing:

"Cuneiform Tablets - Crystalinks." Cuneiform Tablets - Crystalinks. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2014.


Advanced Cities:

"Mesopotamia for Kids - Assyria." Mesopotamia for Kids - Assyria.

N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2014.


Advanced Cities:

"Geography." Brief History of Assyrians. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2014.


Social Structure:

"Ancient Mesopotamia." : Assyrian Empire for Kids. N.p., n.d. Web. 21

Sept. 2014.


Artifacts:

"Ancient Mesopotamia - Babylon and Assyria." Ancient Mesopotamia -

Babylon and Assyria. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2014.


Religion:

"Assyria and the Assyrians." About. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2014.


Artifacts:

"Essentials: Assyria in the second half of the 8th century BC." Assyrian empire builders -. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2014.