What is Science?

Exploring Earth's Surface


Science is a way of learning about the natural world and gain knowledge through the process.

Scientific Inquiry

Scientific inquiry is asking questions about what you observe.

As scientists seek to under stand the natural world they use these skills:

Scientific Theory

A scientific theory is a well tested scientific concept that explains a wide range of observations.

Unlike a theory, a scientific law describes a pattern in nature, but does not provide an explanation for it.


A hypothesis is a possible explanation for a set of observations or answer to a scientific question.


Energy is the ability to do work or cause change.

The earth system has three main parts


The atmosphere is the outermost mixture of gases (Nitrogen and Oxygen).


The hydrosphere is oceans, rivers, lakes, seas, and ice.


The lithospere is the solid, rocky, outer, layer our continents and smaller land masses.


The biosphere is all living things. This extends into the other three spheres.

Matter makes up everything in the univers.


A wave is an up and down or back and forth motion that carries energy from place to place but leaves matter behind.

Energy can be transferred from place to place by moving objects, waves, or heat flow.


Heat is the thermal energy transferred from one object to another as a result of the difference in temperature.

Thermal Energy

Thermal energy is the total energy of all of the atoms that make up an object.

Earth Science

Earth science is knowledge about Earth's land, air, and living things.


Topography is the shape of the land.

The topography of an area includes these three things:

There are three main types of landforms:


A map is a flat model of all or part of Earth's surface as seen from above.


A scale relates distance on a map to distance on Earth's surface.


Symbols are shapes or pictures used to stand for features on Earth's surface.


A key explains the symbols used on the map. It is also known as a legend.


The degree is the distance around a circle.

The lines of latitude and longitude on a map form a grid that can be used to find any location on Earth.


Orienteering is like a race but you are looking for many end points.

Topographic map

A topographic map shows surface features of an area.

When any accedent occers, no matter how minor, notify your teacher IMMEDIATELY.

Some safety symbols are:

General Safety Awareness