Progressive Era Vocab

Mariah Purcell

The Amazing Progressive Era




Reform: make changes in (something, typically a social, political, or economic institution or practice) in order to improve it.


Political Machine: unofficial city organization designed to keep a particular group in power.


Progressive: proceeding step by step.


Muckraker: Writers who exposed corruption in politics and business in the early 20th century.


Prohibition: The act of forbidding something; by law.


Disenfranchisement: Describes a person or group who have been stripped from their power


Muckracker: to search for and expose real or alleged corruption, scandal


De facto segregation: Racial segregation, especially in public schools


De Jure Segregation: separation enforced by law


Graft: the acquisition (gain) of money, gain, or advantage by dishonest, unfair, or illegal means.


Initiative: a new plan or process to achieve something or solve a problem


Referendum: an event in which the people of a county, state, etc., vote for or against a law that deals with a specific issue


Recall: bring (a fact, event, or situation) back into one's mind,


Mugwumps: a person who remains aloof or independent, especially from party politics.


Niagara Movement: was a black civil rights organization founded in 1905 by a group led by W. E. B. Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter


Poll Tax: tax of a fixed amount per person levied on adults and often linked to the right to vote.


NAACP: the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, is a civil rights organization founded in 1909 to fight prejudice, lynching, and Jim Crow segregation, and to work for the betterment of "people of color."


Pendleton Act: is a federal law established in 1883 that decided that government jobs should be awarded on the basis of merit instead of political affiliation.


Sherman Anti-Trust Act: A federal law passed in 1890 that committed the American government to opposing monopolies.


16th amendment: Permits congress to levy an Income tax


17th amendment: Establishes the direct election of U.S Senators by popular vote.


18th amendment: Prohibited the manufacturing or selling of alcohol


19th amendment: Prohibits the denial of right to vote based on sex.


20th amendment: Changes the date on which the terms of the President and Vice President (January 20) and Senators and Representatives (January 3) end and begin.


Great Migration: was the movement of 6 million blacks out of the rural Southern United States to the urban Northeast, Midwest, and West that occurred between 1910 and 1970.


Plessy v. Ferguson (1896): Supreme Court case upheld the constitutionality of segregation under the “separate but equal” doctrine


US v. EC Knight Company (1895): known as the "Sugar Trust Case," was a United States Supreme Court case that limited the government's power to control monopolies


American Tobacco v. US (1911): restraint of trade and an attempt to monopolize the business of tobacco in interstate commerce


Clayton Anti-Trust Act: supplement existing laws against unlawful restraints and monopolies, and for other purposes.