Cell-abrate the System!

With all of the organelles! By: Corinn Szostkiewcz

Let's start with the Nucleus!

The nucleus is a very important part of a eukaryotic cell. The nucleus is wrapped in a double membrane and it is responsible for holding the DNA that gives the cell its different aspects. The DNA that the nucleus holds is specified to that cell. The nucleus also has many nuclear pores which helps them interact with the cytosol around it.


The Nucleus Song

The Nucleolus!

The nucleolus is located in the nucleus. Its main function is to produce ribosomes that transfer from the nucleus, to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The ribosomes that it produces are then used in protein synthesis.


Cytosol

The cytosol is important to cellular metabolism. The cytosol has many proteins that control the metabolism. The metabolism controls signal transduction pathways, glycolysis, intracellular receptors, and transcription factors. The cytosol is made of mostly water and proteins. Cytoplasm is a word used to describe the cytosol and the organelles inside the cytosol. The Cytosol is mainly where most of the the other organelles are placed.



Centrosome!

The centrosome is the place int eh cell where the microtubles are produced.


Animal cell: the centrosome is two smaller organelles called centrioles. The centrosome splits in cell division while the centrioles make copies of themselves. the new cell has two centrosomes and centrioles. The centrosomes move to opposite ends of the nucleus and create microtubules. They grow and are now responsible for splitting new chromosomes into new cells.

Plant cell: The plant cell's centrosome does not have centrioles but it plays the same part as the animal cell's centrosome does.


Centriole In only Animal Cells!!

There is a centriole in each animal centrosome. They are made of nine fused microtubles. Each centriole is perpendicular in each centrosome.

Golgi

Is a single membrane organelle that is made for packaging macromolecules and transporting them all around the cell. It is made of membrane bound blood vesicles. It is a phospholipid membrane. The larger vesicles are encompassed by the smaller vesicles that have the packaged molecules. The macromolecules hold hormones that the cell need to function. It gives off and also stores proteins.


Golgi Apparatus.mp4

Lysosome

Lysosomes are used for intracellular digestion. They contain hydrolic enzymes that are common in animal cells but are less common in plant cells. The enzymes are released into the vacuole to kill bacteria invading the cell.


Cell Membrane

The cell membrane is made up of a double layer of phospholipids. There are exposed heads that are hydrolic, which means they love water. The bottom of the hydrolic heads however are hydrophobic which means that they are not compatible with water. They cell membrane keeps out the unexpected flow of water. The membrane also has multiple proteins which are, receptors for odors, taste, and hormones. The proteins also control exit and entry to the cell.

Ribosomes

Ribosomes are made of RNA and proteins that are important to a eukaryotic cell. Ribosomes are where protein synthesis happens. They are spilt into two part, a large subunit and a small subunit. The ribosome adds amino acids to a protein chain.


Cytoskeleton

The cytoskeleton is responsible for the structure and movement of the cell. The cytoskeleton is made of three primary protein filaments which are, microtubules, actin filaments, and intermediate fibers.


Smooth and Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

The smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum are both responsible for the production of hormones and other secretory products. The are bound vesicles and tubules they are a connected piece of the outer nuclear membrane. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is called that because of the way it looks under the microscope. It has a different function depending on the cell type. The rough endoplasmic reticulum appears rough under the microscope because of its multiple ribosomes on the top of it.


Mitochondria

The mitochondria is basically the power center of the cell. It produces the energy that is needed for the cell to move, divide and make secretory products. They have many different shapes depending on the cell. They have a double membrane. The outer membrane is smooth, but the inner membrane is folded causing the different shapes.


Chloroplast Only in Plant Cell!!

A Chloroplast is only found in the plant cell. They contain the chlorophyll that makes the plant green, and gives it the ability to absorb energy from sunlight. This energy is used for photosynthesis. They have a double outer membrane.


Large Central Vacuole Only in Plant Cells!!

It is a membrane bound organelle that helps with intracellular digestion and the release of cellular waste. They store nutrients, and help increase cell size during growth as well. The vacuole helps to regulate water pressure in the cell. Without the regulation of the water, the plant will wilt.


Cell Wall only in plant cells!!

Plant cells have a wall around them made of a polysaccharide. This polysaccharide is usually cellulose. It basically maintains the shape of the cell wall, and is a barrier for fluids. When fluid collects in a plant it pushes against the cell wall but does not get out of the cell.


How do they work together in a cell?

The nucleolus, and the Rough endoplasmic Reticulum

The nucleolus is responsible for making RNA. The ribosomes. These ribisomes move out of the nucleolus, and out of the nucleus to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. This RNA is then used as part of protein sythesis. It comes from the nucleus and each RNA makes to protein chain longer by adding an amino acid to the end of each one. Once it is on the rough endoplasmic reticulum and are transported throughout the cell

Centrosome, Centriole, and nucleus

To make a new cell the centrosome, centriole,and the nucleus have to work togther. The centrioles make replicas of themselves and the centrosome. The centrosome does the dividing. The centrosomes move to opposite ends of the nucleus and grow microtubles. The tublues that they grow around the nucleus are responsible for splitting the chromosomes into the new cells.

Lysosomes and the vacuole

Without both of these organelles working together intracellular digestion would not work. The lysosomes release white blood cells that eat bacteria. These cells are released into the vacuole to break down and digest the bacteria.

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum and the Nuclear membrane

These two organelles work together because the Smooth ER is a continuation of the outer nuclear membrane. The smooth ER needs the nuclear membrane to carry out it's functions and the nuclear membrane need the ER to carry out it's own functions


The cell as a system

The cell need all of it's organelles to function properly, without one of the them, the cell wouldn't work. The RNA moves from the nucleolus out of the nucleus and is moved to the ribosomes that then add amino acids to make a protein chain the cell can use. This process is called protein synthesis and occurs on the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Then it is transferred to parts of the cell that needs it. The proteins can be transferred to the Golgi, where the macromolecules are packaged and also transferred around the cell as well. The cell membrane keeps all of these organelles safe and protected from the flow of water. The cytoskeleton moves the cell with the energy provided by the mitochondria. The cell reproduces withe centrioles, centrosome, and the nucleus. Lysosomes break down bacteria for food with the energy from the mitochondria. The cytosol is the gel that keeps all the organelles in place and doesn't let them move around the cell.


A cell is a system of interrelated parts, and all of the organelles work together to make the cell function properly!


SO CEL-ABRATE THE SYSTEM WITH ALL THE ORGANELLES!!

Cells Song