The Cardiovascular System

The Bloods A'Flowin'

Overall Characteristics

Blood is a bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells. Scientists estimate the volume of blood in a human body to be approximately 7 percent of body weight. An average adult body with a weight of 150 to 180 pounds will contain approximately 4.7 to 5.5 liters (1.2 to 1.5 gallons) of blood.
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How & Where?

Blood cells are produced in the bone marrow, a jellylike substance inside the bones that is composed of, among other things, fat, blood, and special cells that turn into the various kinds of cells- only the marrow of certain bones (spine, ribs,pelvis, and some others) continue to make blood.

*All blood cells come from the same kind of stem cell, which has the potential to turn into any kind of blood cell.

The Four Components

Red blood cells (also known as erythrocytes): makes up 45% of the blood; no nucleus; hemoglobin united with oxygen makes oxyhemoglobin and hemoglobin (protein made by using iron) united with Carbon Dioxide is carbaminohemoglobin. (function: transports oxygen and carbon dioxide) The cell is caved in on both sides so that each one has a thin center and thicker edges.; disc shaped

maintains homeostasis by keeping a constant balance of iron and carrying oxygen through the blood.

White blood cells(also known as leukocytes): makes up less than 1% of the blood, characterized by the presence of granules. Granular leukocytes (have granules in their cytoplasm): neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils.

neutrophils: a phagocytic white blood cell having a lobulate nucleus and neutrophil granules in the cytoplasm

eosinophils: a leukocyte having esosinphilic granules in the cytoplasm and usually a bilobate nucleus.

basophils: a white blood cell having a two-lobed nucleus and basophilic granules in its cytoplasm

Nongranular leukocytes (no granules in their cytoplasm):Lymphocytes and monocytes. (types of white blood cells) Macrophages are specialized monocytes that grow to several times their original size after migrating out of the blood stream.

Platelets (also known as thrombocytes): makes up 1% of blood; essential part of blood clotting, or coagulation. Prothrombin activator is a protein formed by clotting factors from damaged tissue cells and platelets. Thrombin is a protein important in blood clotting, and fibrinogen is a normal plasma protein. Together, they form fibrin, which is a fibrous gel. When a clot stays in the place where it formed, it is known as thrombus, and the condition is called thrombosis. If the clot dislodges and circulates through the bloodstream, the dislodged part is called embolus, and the condition is known as embolism.

Platelets are only about 20% of the diameter of red blood cells, the most numerous cell of the blood. The normal platelet count is 150,000-350,000 per microliter of blood, but since platelets are so small, they make up just a tiny fraction of the blood volume.

Plasma: makes up 55% of blood; liquid part of the blood, or blood minus its formed elements. It consist of water with many substances dissolved in it. Wastes that cells must get rid of are dissolved in plasma transported to the excretory organs. Group of the plasma proteins which constitute about 7% of the plasma by weight; albumins helps thicken and maintain the blood, globulins includes the antibodies that help protect us fro infections, and fibrogen and prothrombin that help with blood clotting. blood serum is plasma minus its clotting factors

plasma proteins: albumins, globulins, fibrinogen, prothrombin; make up 7% of the plasma by weight

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