London Times

By: Jacqueline Creamer

The inventors of the Industrial Revoution

The Industrial Revolution gave us some brilliant inventors. The inventors during the Industrial Revolution helped. Inventors like James Watt, Eli Whitney, Henry Bessemer, Edward Jenner, and Louis Pasteur. Their inventions helped in many other ways

James Watt born in England was the first to patent the steam engine in 1769.The invention of the steam machine was a new way to create a source of power. Earlier steam engines were used to drain water and raise coal from mines and to create energy. Watt later improved it. He was able to make the steam engine a reciprocating engine. Which gave us the first reliable steam engine. The steam engine was an inexpensive device that could now help with manufacturing and other inventions. The steam engine is associated with the invention of trains, to power machinery factories, and steam boats.

Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin. A machine that automated the separation of cottonseed from the short- staple. English mills were hungry for cotton and planters in the Southern United States believed that cotton crop was profitable. So, with the demand for cotton growing, Whitney saw that a machine to clean the green-seed cotton could make the South prosperous and make its inventor rich. So, in 1974 Whitney patented the cotton gin.

Henry Bessemer invented The Bessemer Process or Converter. He was born in Charlton, Hertfordshire. Bessemer was mostly self-taught who exhibited extraordinary inventive skills since childhood. Sir Henry Bessemer invented the first process for mass-producing steel inexpensively. This was essential to the development of skyscrapers. An American, William Kelly, had held a patent for "a system of air blowing the carbon out of pig iron" a method of steel production known as the pneumatic process of steelmaking. Air is blown through molten pig iron to oxidize and remove unwanted impurities. Bankruptcy forced Kelly to sell his patent to Bessemer, who had been working on a similar process for making steel. Bessemer patented "a decarbonization process, utilizing a blast of air" in 1855. Modern steel is made using technology based on Bessemer's process. Bessemer was knighted in 1879 for his contribution to science. The "Bessemer Process" for mass-producing steel, was named after Bessemer.

Edward Jenner invented the smallpox vaccine. Edward Jenner was born in Berkeley, Gloucestershire. At the age of 14, he was apprenticed to a local surgeon and then trained in London. In 1796, he conducted an experiment on an eight year named James Phipps. He had a theory based from folklore of the countryside that milkmaids who suffered the mild disease of cowpox never contracted smallpox, one of the greatest killers of the period, particularly among children. Jenner inserted pus taken from a cowpox pustule and inserted it into an incision on the boy's arm. By doing this he proved that having been inoculated with cowpox Phipps was immune to smallpox. smallpox. The clergy claimed that his work was repulsive and ungodly to inoculate someone with material from a disease animal. With that said Jenner’s vaccination became widespread.

Louis Pasteur was a French inventor, doctor, and chemist. He discovered that microbes were responsible for souring alcohol and came up with the process of pasteurization, where bacteria is destroyed by heating beverages and then allowing them to cool. His work in germ theory also led him and his team to create vaccinations for anthrax and rabies. He also worked on finding solutions to the problems with the manufacture of alcoholic drinks. He working with the germ theory, which Pasteur did not invent, but further developed through experiments and eventually convinced most of Europe of its truth, he demonstrated that organisms such as bacteria were responsible for souring wine, beer and even milk. He then invented a process where bacteria could be removed by boiling and then cooling liquid. He completed the first test on April 20, 1862. Today the process is known as pasteurization.