Once you climb into the bridle, be ready for the ride
Keeping Stalls dry - Way of the horse. By Eleanor Blazer
A stall that drains properly is the first step. Constructing a good base will allow the urine to drain. Poor drainage means the bedding must absorb all the moisture. It's much easier to construct a good base before the barn is built.
One method of establishing a good base it to remove the top soil (save it for other projects) and then remove enough soil so you are about three feet deep. The next step is to have the contractor place a layer of large stones, followed by a layer of small stones, then stone dust; followed by a final layer of clay or clay and sand mixture. Availability of materials will vary according to region. Check with a local contractor to find out what is best in your area. Avoid using straight sand as your final layer. Horses ingesting sand can colic.
The center of each stall should be slightly higher than the sides, so urine will not puddle. You will have to replenish the clay every few years. Solid, one-piece rubber mats will not allow the urine to drain. Many barns have concrete floors. These barns must have good quality mats installed. Plenty of bedding needs to be used to absorb the urine. Regardless of the floor type, the stall should be cleaned daily. Removal of the wet, urine soaked bedding will cut down on ammonia build-up.There are several considerations when deciding on bedding: absorbency, dustiness, how well it cushions, possible allergies to the product, how digestible it is, and availability.
Soft wood shavings are more absorbent and safer for the horse than hard wood shavings. Pine and spruce are the most common sources for commercial soft wood shavings.The soft wood shavings are generally safe to use. Occasionally a horse may be allergic to the pine resins. The symptoms shown by an allergic reaction will be bumps or hives.Hard wood shavings can be dangerous to use. You must be absolutely certain there is no walnut, cherry, or cedar in the material.The toxins produced by these products can cause laminitis. The horse does not need to eat the product – just standing on them allows the toxins to penetrate the hoof. Laminitis can occur within 12-24 hours of exposure, and can lead to severe lameness.Dust is not usually a problem with wood shavings. The texture can vary and every person who has cleaned stalls has a preference. Unfortunately it’s pretty hard to tell what the texture is until you open the bag. Remember: shavings are a by-product so quality control is not perfect.Wood shavings are not suitable for a foaling mare. The shavings will stick to the mare and newborn foal. Straw should be used in the stall as the foaling date approaches.
Pelleted bedding is made from compressed soft woods. The resins, hydrocarbons, and any other moisture have been removed during the processing. This results in a highly absorbent product.
The tightly compressed pellets become fluffy when wet. If they are allowed to dry they can become dusty. Manufacturers recommend the wet spots not be removed, but mixed with the dry material. The daily routine advised is to remove the manure and mix the wet bedding with the dry. Occasionally a bag may need to be added. In time the stall will need to be stripped and new product used. Pelleted bedding should not be used in a foaling stall.
Shredded paper and cardboard are the most common paper products used for horse bedding. They are very absorbent, but will mat when wet. This results in a poor cushion factor. No dust is the main benefit of paper bedding. Paper based bedding products are low in allergenic mold spores, so great for horses with allergies.
Peat moss is one of the most absorbent of all the bedding materials available. Dry peat moss will absorb 10 times its weight in moisture, making it heavy to remove when wet.There is no dust – as long as it is kept moist. Horses that are prone to allergies seem to do well when bedded on peat. Mares should not be allowed to foal in peat moss, as it will stick to her and the foal. Peat moss should be bedded deep. The deeper it is – the easier it is to clean the stall. It has a great cushion factor when bedded at 8-12 inches.
Straw is the best bedding for a mare about to foal. It provides a good cushion and will not stick.There can be dust if it was not baled properly. Straw is not as absorbent as some of the other products.If a horse is not receiving enough good quality digestible fiber (hay) he will eat the straw bedding. As long as it is clean, not moldy, or dusty eating a small amount should not harm the horse. If the horse should eat large amounts of straw, then impaction colic is possible.
Að halda stíum þurrum. - English to Icelandic translation.
Góður grunnur í stíum hjálpar úrgangi að þorna. Ef um lélegan grunn er að ræða, þýðir það að sagið þurfi að gleypa allan raka. Ein aðferð til að byggja upp góðan grunn er að fjarlægja efsta lag jarðvegs og grafa síðan sirka þrjá metra ofan í jörðu og nota jarðveginn sem þar er sem grunn. Næsta skrefið er að fá verktaka til að leggja stóra steina, á eftir því ætti að leggja lag af minni steinum og að lokum steinryk og síðan leir eða leir og sand ofan á. Forðast ætti að nota bara venjulegan sand sem seinasta lagið þar sem það fer illa með meltinguna í hestum ef þeir skildu borða sandinn. Miðpunktur stíunnar ætti að vera ögn hærri en hliðarnar svo að úrgangurinn verði ekki að pollum í miðjunni. Margar hlöður eru með steypu gólf, í þannig stíum þarf að hafa góðar mottur og svo þarf mikið af sagi til þess að þurrka úrganginn. Hreinsa þarf stíur daglega sama hver grunnurinn er.
Betra er að nota mjúkan við þar sem hann er öruggari fyrir hestinn en harðviður. Fura og Greni eru algengustu efnin í mjúkan spæni. Í flestum tilfellum er öruggt að nota mjúkan spæni, en það getur komið fyrir að hrossið sé með onæmi fyrir Furu og koma þá einkennin yfirleitt í ljós með því að hrossið er með kláða eða fær bólur.
Það getur verið hættulegt að nota harðvið. Maður þarf að vera alveg viss um það að valhnetur, kirsuber eða sedrusviður í innihaldinu. Hesturinnþarf ekki að borða þessi efni heldur er nóg er fyrir hann að standa á þessum efnum til þess að þau valdi hófssperu. Hófsspera getur mindast á innan við 12-24 klukkutímum og getur ollið alvarlegri helltu.
Strá eða hey:
Best er að nota strá eða hey í stíum fyrir fylfullar merar þar sem að það festist ekki við þær eða folöldin þegar þær kasta.
What methods, and why?
I chose this article because I´m going to be a breeder when I grow up and I wanted to know what was the best material to use in a stall. Turns out I learned a few things from this article, even though some things were different fx. We usually don’t keep the mare´s who are expecting in boxes, we keep the out in the field. Another reason why I chose this was because I saw there were few words in this text, which I had in my wordlist, so it helped me with translating the text. When I was translating the text, I began by reading it through. Then I decided what I wanted to have in my magazine and started translating. When I couldn’t understand something I used a dictionary or googled the word and saw a picture of it or a meaning, and if that didn’t help I asked my parents if they knew the meaning.
Það er mikilvægt að huga vel að fóðrun hrossa bæði hrossa á útigangi og í brúkun, hvort sem er á húsi eða úti við á sumrin. Á útigangi getur verið gott að skipta stóðinu upp í nokkra hópa, bæði til þess að minka álag og svo getur verið gott að halda unghrossum og folaldsmerum frá hinum almenna reiðhesti þar sem fóðurþörfin er ekki sú sama og eldri hross geta oft haldið ungum tryppum frá fóðrinu.
Ýmsar ástæður geta verið fyrir því að hestur fóðrist illa, t.d:
Tennur og tannvandamál - Gott er að fá dýralækni til þess að skoða upp í hestinn hvort einvherjar tennur séu lausar eða hvort miklir tannbroddar séu að særa hestinn.
Vítamín og steinefna skortur - Hesta getur skort nauðsynleg vítamín og steinefni. Hægt er að taka blóðprufu og greina hvaða efni hestinn vantar.
Blue Hors vörulínan okkar innihedur t.d allskyns sniðugar steinefna og vítamín blöndur
Ormasýking - þetta á sérstaklega við um ung hross, þau auvitað geti það haft áhrif á eldri hesta
Hvernar er hesturinn í réttum holdum?
Búið er að útbúa skala sem hjálpar til við að ákvarða ástands hestinn. Skalinn hefur 5 stig.
Öll rifbein sjást, skinnið er strengt á beinin og hvergi fitu að finna. Mikið gengið á vöðva, makki fallinn, herðar og hryggsúla standa mikið uppúr, lend holdlaus. Hesturinn hengir haus og sýnir lítil viðbrögð við ytra áreiti. Heilsutjón er varanlegt og rétt er að aflífa hross í þessu ásigkomulagi
Mjög alvarleg vanfóðrun sem varðar við lög um búfjárhald 103/2002 og ber tafarlaust að tilkynna viðkomandi héraðsdýralækni.
Flest rifbein finnast greinilega, og þau öftustu sjást. Örlítil fita undir húð yfir fremri rifbeinum. Vöðvar teknir að rýrna, tekið úr makka og lend, hálsinn þunnur. Hryggsúla og herðar sjst vel. Hárafar matt og hrossið vansælt. Vanfóðrun sem ber að taka til sérstakrar aðhlynningar.
Tvö til fjögur öftustu rifbein finnast greinilega við þreifingu en sjást ekki. Yfir þeim er þunnt og laust fitulag (ca 1 cm). Lendin er ávöl og hæfilega fyllt. Bakið fyllt og jafnt hryggsúlu. Hárafar slétt og jafnt.
Þykk fita á síðu, rifbein verða ekki greind. Bak mjög fyllt og hryggsúllan oft örlítið sokkin í hold.
Rifbein finnast alls ekki, fitan mjög þétt átöku. Laut eftir baki og mikil dæld í lend. Keppir og hnyklar af fitu, á síðu, hálsi, lend. Óæskilegt getur haft neikvæð áhrif á heilsufar.
Einnig finnst góð lýsing á ástandi hrossa sem falla á milli stiga:
1,5 - Horaður - flest rifbein sjást. Fastur átöku. Verulega tekið úr hálsi, baki og lend. Hárafar er gróft, strítt og matt.
Mikil hætta að hrossið nái sér ekki að fullu.
2,5 - Fullþunnur - Yfir tveim-fjórum öftustu rifbeinum er mjög lítil fita, sem gjarnan er föst átöku, nema hrossið sé í bata. Vöðvar í lend, baki og hálsi ekki nægjanlega fylltir. Hrossið er í tæpum reiðhestsholdum og þarf að bæta á sig.
3,5 - Ríflegur - Yfir tveim-fjórum öftustu rifbeinum er gott og laust fitulag. Öftustu rifbein má samt greina. Lend, bak og háls eru fallega vöðvafyllt og fitusöfnun má oft merkja t.d. fyrir aftan herðar. Hrossið er í ríflegum reiðhestsholdum og hefur nokkurn forða til að taka af.
4,5 - Mjög feitur - Greinileg fitusöfnun í hálsi, aftan við herðar og á lend.
* Upplýsingar eru fengnar úr reglugarð um aðbúnarð, umhirðu og heilbrigðiseftirlit hrossa. 160/2006
Leiðbeiningar um fóðurþörf hesta:
Mjög góðar upplýsingar um fóðurþörf er hægt að nálgast á síðu Búnaðarsambandsins.
Orkuþarfir til viðhalds
Orkuþarfir til viðhalds er sú orka sem þarf til þess að halda hesti/hrossi í orkujafnvægi (án brúkunar). Orkuþörf fer eftir stærð og þunga. Samkvæmt evrópska fóðurmatskerfinu eru orkuþarfir minni hestakynja reiknaðar á eftirfarandi hátt: FEh til viðhalds = 0,037 x Þ0,75 þar sem Þ stendur fyrir þunga hestsins í kg.
Próteinþarfir til viðhalds
Daglegar próteinþarfir hests til viðhalds eru nálægt 70 g meltanlegs hrápróteins fyrir hver 100 kg í þunga. Reikna má daglega próteinþörf fullorðinna hesta til viðhalds á eftirfarandi hátt: 3 g meltanl. hráprótein x Þ0,75 þar sem Þ er þungi hestsins í kg.
Feeding Horses Icelandic to English Translation
There can be many reasons why horse is not feeding well, such as toothache, lack of vitamins or minerals and worm infection.
The scale that determines the condition of the horse has five levels:
Scrawny: When you can see all the ribs in the horse and the skin is attached to bones and there is no fat to be found. The muscles have started diminishing, the mane has collapsed, and shoulders and spinal rise above and the loin have no flesh.
Really deformed: When touching the horse you can feel most of his ribs and usually see them. A thin layer of fat is under the skin and the front ribs. The neck is thin, and shoulders and spine are obvious.
Riding horse condition: 2-4 of the furthest back ribs can clearly be felt when touching, but can´t be seen. Over the ribs is a thin layer of fat and the back and shoulders are even and full. The hairs are straight and even.
Fat: Thick layer of fat on the flank, ribs can´t be felt. Back is very full and the spine has often sunken into the flesh.
Deformed: Ribs can´t be felt at all, the fat is very thick. The back is hollow and dimples in the loin. There will be lumps of fat on the flank, neck and loin. This is not healthy at all and can have negative effect on the health of the horse.
What methods? And why?
Helga Una Björnsdóttir
Helga is a 25 year´s old rider and trainer and I had the privilege to interview her for my magazine. Helga Una Björnsdóttir was only 3 months old when she first sat in to a saddle, of course with her big sister, but at the age of 3 she had already begun riding by herself. At the age of 6 she first began competing, she said that the horse, which name was Gjafar, had jumped with her out of the riding field, “really disappointing” she said. When she was 11 she got a horse from her mother named Kolgrímur, and she got to train him by herself and at the age of 13 she showed her first horse, her favorite horse, Orða from Gauksmýri and since then she as done about 100 shows and she has competed in every Landsmót since 2002, but in 2011 she went to the World Championship, where she competed on the mare Smá from Þúfa.
“The most fun about going to World Championship is to meet all the great people, and the experience of being in such a great team, where everyone support and help each other".
Now at 25 year old Helga owns about 20 horses and is training around 20 horses. She hasn’t decided whether or not she wants to go and study in Hólar but know she´s working in Austurás as a trainer and rider. When I asked Helga if she wanted to found her own farm, and where she would like to have it she said: “ isn’t that every once dream? Yes it would most certainly be a big dream. Where I grew up wouldn’t be so stupid for that project but we never know".
Eating good food, buying new clothes is what Helga thinks is really fun, but don’t we all? She also really enjoys her work and working on her other hobbies. I asked her what her life motto was and she said: “Enjoy life”.
I chose Helga Una because she is a young independent woman who has come so far, despite young age. She has won many competitions and competed many times in Landsmót and also Heimsmeistaramót.
Furthermore; she has already started her own breeding with style and she is one of my role models.
1. 1.) When did you first start riding?
2. 2.) When did you first start riding by yourself?
3. 3.)How old were you when you first trained a horse?
4. 4.) When did you first compete? On what horse?
5. 5.)When did you show your first horse in a breeding show? What horse was it?
6. 6.)How many times have you competed in Landsmót?
7. 7.)When did you firs go to World championship? With what horse?
8. 8.)What do think was the most fun about going to the WC?
9. 9.)How many horses do you own now?
1 10.) How many horses are you training?
11. 11.)Are you planning on going to Hólar?
12. 12.)Are you interested in something else?
13. 13.)Where are you working now?
14. 14.)Would you like to found your own farm? If yes, then where?
15. 15.)What do you think is the most fun thing to do?
16. 16.)What is your motto?
Handspring puppet co: The genius puppetry behind Warhorse.
In this video there were two puppet makers who were showing us how they made the puppet horse Joe. They had to make a puppet horse, which was able to be ridden by a human and in the same size as a real Trakehner horse, also know as a warhorse. They had to make this horse for a Broadway Show of the Warhorse movie.
The movie is about a boy who falls in love with a horse his father buys, but the boy trains the horse and they become best friends and then he has to loan a man his horse to go fight in the war. The horse gets lost and the boy goes to look for the horse.
They had to make several horses for the Broadway show, due to the fact, that the Warhorse movie and play is based on horses. They began the lecture by showing us a puppet hyena, but hyenas are actually the ancestors to the horse, then they showed us Joe and how he was built. It was amazing to see how real the puppets moved and the sound they made and the detailing in the puppets.
Why this video?
The video was really fun to watch and I really enjoyed it.
Susan Savage: The gentle genius of bonobos
This one is about a spicy called bonobos. They can only be found in Kongo and aren’t likely to be found in a zoo, due to they’re sexual behavior, “its to human like for most of us to be comfortable with” said Susan. She has been working with bonobos for many years and she says she believes they are the happiest creatures on earth and we have a lot to learn from them. She says that if we look at they´re culture we kind come to understand how we got to where we are today. The bonobos walk almost the same way as we do, furthermore; they are able to walk upright for many hours. Kanzi is a bonobo who has lived with Susan since he was born. Susan took care of his mother. Kanzi can understand Susan, light a fire, play music and can almost do anything he is thought. We get to see his sister and she learning how to drive a golf cart. We get to see Kanzi´s mother and what she learned. She was able to wright down samples and that way she could tell Susan what she wanted. All of this is shown in the video and much more. In the end Susan said:
“ we are learning how to become like the, we are learning how to communicate with them in really high-pitched tones, we´re learning that they probably have a language in the wild, and they´re learning to become like us, because we believe it´s not biology it´s culture, so we´re sharing tools and technology and language with another spicy”
Franz de Waal: moral behavior of animals
The last lecture I watched was about moral behavior in animals. This one is about, well moral behavior of animals. Frans has made many tests for animals to see if they have the similar morals as we humans. He ones wrote a book about chimpanzees and then gave them a copy, not knowing how much they would understand, but they seemed to be interested in the book. Through this video we get to see more test he put op for animal, mostly apes, but also elephants. One test was to see how well they would work together, were they had to help each other to get food, and then he tested how well they would work together in the same way, but this time one had be fed. This is really funny to watch, and some animal’s cheat, but they never forget to eat the food. He did another test, where he tested the yawn contagious on apes. We know that if we see someone yawn we yawn, the same thing happened with the apes. Then he made a test were one monkey only got cucumber and the other monkey got grapes. Grapes are better than cucumbers so the other monkey got really angry when he saw that the other one got grapes and he only got cucumbers.